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Gender in Constitutional Law

Edited by Catharine A. MacKinnon, Elizabeth A. Long Professor of Law, University of Michigan Law School, and long-term James Barr Ames Visiting Professor of Law, Harvard Law School, US. She is a lawyer, teacher, writer, and activist for sex equality
Gender in Constitutional Law is a comprehensive three-volume collection of formative and influential scholarship in a dynamic area of legal development and social change. Compiling theoretical, empirical, and practical analyses from leading scholars, judges, and nongovernmental organizations around the world, these volumes are comparative and international in range, representative in content, and illuminating in depth. Particular attention is paid to intersectionality, culture, and custom. Mapped by an accessible, incisive introductory chapter, the collection provides basic sources and cutting-edge guidance in constitutional processes. The assembled curated works, together with the introduction, offer an invaluable cross-disciplinary research tool for generalists and specialists, scholars and practitioners, thinkers and activists, students, teachers, individuals and groups alike.
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Extent: c 2,200 pp
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Publication Date: March 2018
ISBN: 978 1 78536 939 1
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  • Family and Gender Policy
Gender in Constitutional Law is a comprehensive three-volume collection of formative and influential scholarship in a dynamic area of legal development and social change. Compiling theoretical, empirical, and practical analyses from leading scholars, judges, and nongovernmental organizations around the world, these volumes are comparative and international in range, representative in content, and illuminating in depth. Particular attention is paid to intersectionality, culture, and custom. Mapped by an accessible, incisive introductory chapter, the collection provides basic sources and cutting-edge guidance in constitutional processes. The assembled curated works, together with the introduction, offer an invaluable cross-disciplinary research tool for generalists and specialists, scholars and practitioners, thinkers and activists, students, teachers, individuals and groups alike.
‘Brilliantly introduced and orchestrated by the world’s most innovative thinker about gender and the law, Catharine A. MacKinnon, this collection of illuminating research papers on every important facet of this kaleidoscopic topic is one that any scholar or policymaker who cares about the role that law plays in structuring gender relations, and the role that gender plays in structuring the law, needs to own.’
– Laurence H. Tribe, Harvard Law School, US

‘Catharine A. MacKinnon, one of the world’s foremost feminist legal scholars and activists, has compiled a masterful collection of materials on gender in constitutional law across the globe. The breadth and quality of coverage makes this book essential reading for anyone interested in comparative perspectives on sex-based inequalities and legal responses.’
– Deborah L. Rhode, Stanford University, US

‘This groundbreaking and carefully curated collection of work of a diverse group of leading international legal scholars puts gender in its place - at the centre of constitutional law. The book is a welcome and timely addition to constitutional law scholarship.’
– Reg Greycar, 11th Floor St James Hall Chambers, Australia

56 articles, dating from 1981 to 2017
Contributors include: K. Abrams, S. Baer, F. Banda, C. Chinkin, K. W. Crenshaw, D. Dahlerup, V. Jackson, K. O’Regan, R. Rubio-Marín, R. Siegel
Contents:

Acknowledgements

Research Review Catharine A. MacKinnon

PART I THEORY AND DESIGN
1. Helen Irving (2011), ‘Drafting, Design and Gender’, in Tom Ginsburg and Rosalind Dixon (eds), Comparative Constitutional Law, Part I, Chapter 2, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 19–37

2. Catharine A. MacKinnon (2012), ‘Gender in Constitutions’, in Michel Rosenfeld and András Sajó (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law, Part II, Chapter 19, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 397–416

3. Kimberlé Crenshaw (1989), ‘Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics’, University of Chicago Legal Forum, Feminism in the Law: Theory, Practice and Criticism, 1989 (1), 139-167

4. Kathleen M. Sullivan (2002), ‘Constitutionalizing Women’s Equality’, California Law Review, 90 (3), May, 735–64

5. Paula A. Monopoli (2006), ‘Gender and Constitutional Design’, Yale Law Journal, 115 (9), September, 2643–51

6. Emanuela Lombardo (2005), ‘Integrating or Setting the Agenda? Gender Mainstreaming in the European Constitution-Making Process’, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, Special Issue on Gender Mainstreaming, 12 (3), Fall, 412–32

7. Kathryn Abrams (1997), ‘The Constitution of Women’, Alabama Law Review, 48 (3), 861–84

8. Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Dina Francesca Haynes and Naomi Cahn (2011), ‘Law Reform, Constitutional Design, and Gender’, in On the Frontlines: Gender, War, and the Post-Conflict Process, Part II, Chapter 9, New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, 197–228, references

9. Ruth Rubio-Marín and Wen-Chen Chang (2013), ‘Sites of Constitutional Struggle for Women’s Equality’, in Mark Tushnet, Thomas Fleiner and Cheryl Saunders (eds), Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law, Part III, Chapter 23, Abingdon, UK and New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 301–12

10. Jill Elaine Hasday (2013), ‘Women’s Exclusion from the Constitutional Canon’, University of Illinois Law Review, 2013 (5), 1715–32

11. UN Women (2012), ‘Women’s Human Rights and National Constitutions: Leadership and Political Participation’, United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, August, 1–22

PART II HISTORY
12. Leslie F. Goldstein (2015), ‘Gender, Sex, and the U.S. Constitution’, in Mark Tushnet, Mark A. Graber and Sanford Levinson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the U.S. Constitution, Part IV, Chapter 25, New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, 521–40

13. Nancy F. Cott (1998), ‘Marriage and Women’s Citizenship in the United States, 1830-1934’, American Historical Review, 103 (5), December, 1440–74

14. Penelope E. Andrews (2001), ‘From Gender Apartheid to Non-Sexism: The Pursuit of Women’s Rights in South Africa’, North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, 26 (3), 693–722

15. Reva B. Siegel (2002), ‘She the People: The Nineteenth Amendment, Sex Equality, Federalism, and the Family’, Harvard Law Review, 115 (4), February, 947–1046

16. Gretchen Ritter (2002), ‘Jury Service and Women’s Citizenship before and after the Nineteenth Amendment’, Law and History Review, 20 (3), Fall, 479–515

17. Gretchen Ritter (2003), ‘Women’s Citizenship and the Problem of Legal Personhood in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s’, Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 13 (1), Fall, 1-39

18. Susanne Baer (2010), ‘The Basic Law at 60 – Equality and Difference: A Proposal for the Guest List to the Birthday Party’, German Law Journal, Special Issue: The Basic Law at 60, 11 (1), 67–87

19. Vicki C. Jackson (2009), ‘Conclusion: Gender Equality and the Idea of a Constitution: Entrenchment, Jurisdiction, Interpretation’, in Susan H. Williams (ed.) Constituting Equality: Gender Equality and Comparative Constitutional Law, New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 312–49

PART III QUANTITATIVE COMPARISONS
20. Priscilla A. Lambert and Druscilla L. Scribner (2009), ‘A Politics of Difference versus a Politics of Equality: Do Constitutions Matter?’, Comparative Politics, 41 (3), April, 337–57

21. Mila Versteeg (2014), ‘Unpopular Constitutionalism’, Indiana Law Journal, 89 (3), 1133–90

22. Adèle Cassola, Amy Raub, Danielle Foley and Jody Heymann (2014), ‘Where do Women Stand? New Evidence on the Presence and Absence of Gender Equality in the World’s Constitutions’, Politics and Gender, 10 (2), June, 200–35, Erratum

23. Tina-Marie Assi, Alison Earle, Isabel Latz, Amy Raub, Jessica Looze, Aleta Sprague and Jody Heymann (2017), ‘Meeting Global Commitments to Gender Equality: National Laws, Policies and Constitutions in the 186 Nations That Have Ratified CEDAW’, UCLA World Policy Analysis Center Report, 1–41

24. Dawood I. Ahmed and Moamen Gouda (2015), ‘Measuring Constitutional Islamization: The Islamic Constitutions Index’, Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 38 (1), Winter, 1–74

25. Siobhan Austen and Astghik Mavisakalyan (2016), ‘Constitutions and the Political Agency of Women: A Cross-Country Study’, Feminist Economics: A Special Issue on Voice and Agency, 22 (1), 183–210




Volume II

Contents:

Acknowledgements

Research Review An introduction to all three volumes by the editor appears in Volume I

PART I SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES
1. Isabel Latz, Amy Raub, Adele Cassola, Nicolas de Guzman Chorny, Megan Arthur and Jody Heymann (2014), ‘Equal Rights for Women and Girls in the World’s Constitutions’, WORLD Policy Analysis Center Report, i–iii, 1–36

2. Drude Dahlerup and Lenita Freidenvall (2009), ‘Gender Quotas in Politics – A Constitutional Challenge’, in Susan H. Williams (ed.) Constituting Equality: Gender Equality and Comparative Constitutional Law, Chapter 1, New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 29–52

3. Sarah Sunn Bush (2011), ‘International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures’, International Organization, 65 (1), Winter, 103–37

4. Jo Shaw (2002), ‘The European Union and Gender Mainstreaming: Constitutionally Embedded or Comprehensively Marginalised?’, Feminist Legal Studies, 10 (3–4), October, 213–26

5. Christopher D. Totten (2003), ‘Constitutional Precommitments to Gender Affirmative Action in the European Union, Germany, Canada and the United States: A Comparative Approach’, Berkeley Journal of International Law, 21 (1), 27–61

6. Jill Vickers (2010), ‘A Two-Way Street: Federalism and Women’s Politics in Canada and the United States’, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 40 (3), Summer, 412–35

PART II FAMILY, REPRODUCTION, AND WORK
7. Siobhán Mullally (2005), ‘Debating Reproductive Rights in Ireland’, Human Rights Quarterly, 27 (1), February, 78–104

8. Fareda Banda (2006), ‘Women, Law and Human Rights in Southern Africa’, Journal of Southern African Studies: Women and the Politics of Gender in Southern Africa, 32 (1), March, 13–27

9. Karin Carmit Yefet (2009), ‘Unchaining the Agunot: Enlisting the Israeli Constitution in the Service of Women’s Marital Freedom’, Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 20 (2), 441–503

10. Annette Marfording (1996), ‘Gender Equality under the Japanese Constitution’, Verfassung und Recht in Übersee - Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 29 (3), 3. Quartal – 3rd Quarter, 324–46

11. Sadie XinXing Yang and Ao Li (2009), ‘Legal Protection against Gender Discrimination in the Workplace in China’, Gender and Development, 17 (2), July, 295–308

12. Martha C. Nussbaum (2005), ‘India, Sex Equality, and Constitutional Law’, in Beverley Baines and Ruth Rubio–Marin (eds.) The Gender of Constitutional Jurisprudence, Chapter 7, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 174–204

13. Ruth Rubio–Marín (2015), ‘The (Dis)establishment of Gender: Care and Gender Roles in the Family as a Constitutional Matter’, International Journal of Constitutional Law, 13 (4), October, 787–818

PART III GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
14. Kimberlé Crenshaw (1991), ‘Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color’, Stanford Law Review, 43 (6), July, 1241–99

15. Kate O’Regan (2013), ‘The Right to Equality in the South African Constitution’, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law: Symposium Honoring Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, 25 (1), 110–15

16. Valorie K. Vojdik (2008), ‘Conceptualizing Intimate Violence and Gender Equality: A Comparative Approach’, Fordham International Law Journal, 31 (2), 487-527

17. John Borrows (2013), ‘Aboriginal and Treaty Rights and Violence Against Women’, Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 50 (3), Spring, 699–736

PART IV: GAY, LESBIAN, AND TRANSGENDER ISSUES
18. Catharine A. MacKinnon (2004), ‘The Road Not Taken: Sex Equality in Lawrence v. Texas’, Ohio State Law Journal, 65 (5), 1081–95

19. William N. Eskridge, Jr. (2010), ‘Sexual and Gender Variation in American Public Law: From Malignant to Benign to Productive’, UCLA Law Review, 57 (5), June, 1333–73

20. Bret Boyce (2015), ‘Sexuality and Gender Identity Under the Constitution of India’, Journal of Gender, Race and Justice, 18 (1), Winter, 1–64





Volume III

Contents

Acknowledgements


Research Review An introduction to all three volumes by the editor appears in Volume I


PART I PROCESSES OF CHANGE
1. Christine Chinkin (2001), ‘Gender Mainstreaming in Legal and Constitutional Affairs: A Reference Manual for Governments and Other Stakeholders’, Commonwealth Secretariat, 1–102

2. Georgina Waylen (2006), ‘Constitutional Engineering: What Opportunities for the Enhancement of Gender Rights?’, Third World Quarterly: The Politics of Rights: Dilemmas for Feminist Praxis, 27 (7), 1209–21

3. Angela M. Banks (2007), ‘Challenging Political Boundaries in Post-Conflict States’, University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, 29 (1), 105–68

4. Cathi Albertyn and Beth Goldblatt (2008), ‘Towards a Substantive Right to Equality’, in Stu Woolman and Michael Bishop (eds.) Constitutional Conversations, Chapter 14, Pretoria, South Africa: Pretoria University Law Press, 231–254

5. Aili Mari Tripp (2009), ‘Conflicting Agendas? Women’s Rights and Customary Law in African Constitutional Reform’, in Susan H. Williams (ed.) Constituting Equality: Gender Equality and Comparative Constitutional Law, Chapter 8, New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 173–94

6. Susan Bazilli and Marilou McPhedran (2009), ‘Women’s Constitutional Activism in Canada and South Africa’, International Review of Constitutionalism, 9 (2), 389–418

7. Claudia Flores and Patricia A. Made (2013), ‘The Politics of Engagement: Women’s Participation and Influence in Constitution-making Processes’, UN Women: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women Report, i, iii–v, vii, 1–48

8. Kathleen S. Fine-Dare (2014), ‘The Claims of Gender: Indigeneity, Sumak Kawsay, and Horizontal Women’s Power in Urban Ecuador under the 2008 Political Constitution’, Social Development Issues: Alternative Approaches to Global Human Needs, 36 (3), November, 18–33

9. Pilar Domingo, Aoife McCullough, Florence Simbiri and Bernadette Wanjala (2016), ‘Women and Power: Shaping the Development of Kenya’s 2010 Constitution’, Overseas Development Institute Report, March, 1, 3–44

10. Mounira Maya Charrad (2016), ‘Progressive Law: How it Came About in Tunisia’, Journal of Gender, Race and Justice, 18 (2), Spring, 351-9

11. Hallie Ludsin (2011), ‘Women and the Draft Constitution of Palestine’, Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counselling Report, 1, 3–262

Index