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# Income Distribution

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The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics series

With increasing interest in the distribution of income generated by movements towards more inequality, this three-volume set presents an essential collection of previously published articles by leading scholars, which provide a key to understanding this important and controversial area. Volume I considers the problems of measurement and description and explores theories explaining the shape of distribution; it investigates explanations of the upper tail in terms of hierarchies and organisations and presents research on the dynamics of incomes. Volume II considers the determinants of an individual’s income on the one hand and analyses the factors influencing the entire distribution on the other. Non-labour income and policies that influence distribution are discussed in volume III.

Extent: 2,104 pp

With increasing interest in the distribution of income generated by movements towards more inequality, this three-volume set presents an essential collection of previously published articles by leading scholars, which provide a key to understanding this important and controversial area. Volume I considers the problems of measurement and description and explores theories explaining the shape of distribution; it investigates explanations of the upper tail in terms of hierarchies and organisations and presents research on the dynamics of incomes. Volume II considers the determinants of an individual’s income on the one hand and analyses the factors influencing the entire distribution on the other. Non-labour income and policies that influence distribution are discussed in volume III.

This collection will be of great interest to economists, statisticians and policymakers concerned with understanding the complex determinants of income distribution and inequality in our societies.

This collection will be of great interest to economists, statisticians and policymakers concerned with understanding the complex determinants of income distribution and inequality in our societies.

89 articles, dating from 1950 to 1999

Contributors include: A.B. Atkinson, F.A. Cowell, J. Creedy, N. Kaldor, M. Kalecki, S. Kuznets, J. Robinson, S. Rosen, A. Sen, J. Tinbergen

Contributors include: A.B. Atkinson, F.A. Cowell, J. Creedy, N. Kaldor, M. Kalecki, S. Kuznets, J. Robinson, S. Rosen, A. Sen, J. Tinbergen

Contents:

Volume I Description, Measurement, Shape, Dynamics

Acknowledgements

Introduction Michael Sattinger

PART I DESCRIPTION AND MEASUREMENT

1. N.C. Kakwani (1977), ‘Applications of Lorenz Curves in Economic Analysis’

2. J. Aitchison and J.A.C. Brown (1954), ‘On Criteria for Descriptions of Income Distribution’

3. Camilo Dagum (1996), ‘A Systemic Approach to the Generation of Income Distribution Models’

4. Anthony B. Atkinson (1970), ‘On the Measurement of Inequality’

5. Amartya Sen (1978), ‘Ethical Measurement of Inequality: Some Difficulties’

6. Frank A. Cowell (1980), ‘On the Structure of Additive Inequality Measures’

7. A.F. Shorrocks (1982), ‘Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components’

8. A.B. Atkinson and F. Bourguignon (1982), ‘The Comparison of Multi-Dimensioned Distributions of Economic Status’

9. Simon Kuznets (1955), ‘Economic Growth and Income Inequality’

10. Gary S. Fields (1987), ‘Measuring Inequality Change in an Economy with Income Growth’

11. Peter Gottschalk and Timothy M. Smeeding (1997), ‘Cross-National Comparisons of Earnings and Income Inequality’

PART II THE SHAPE OF THE DISTRIBUTION

12. John Creedy (1977), ‘Pareto and the Distribution of Income’

13. Benoit Mandelbrot (1960), ‘The Pareto-Lévy Law and the Distribution of Income’

14. A.D. Roy (1951), ‘Some Thoughts on the Distribution of Earnings’

15. James J. Heckman and Guilherme L. Sedlacek (1990), ‘Self-Selection and the Distribution of Hourly Wages’

16. Jan Tinbergen (1956), ‘On the Theory of Income Distribution’

17. Hendrik Houthakker (1974), ‘The Size Distribution of Labour Incomes Derived from the Distribution of Aptitudes’

18. Michael Sattinger (1975), ‘Comparative Advantage and the Distributions of Earnings and Abilities’

19. Coen N. Teulings (1995), ‘The Wage Distribution in a Model of the Assignment of Skills to Jobs’

PART III DYNAMICS

20. D.G. Champernowne (1953), ‘A Model of Income Distribution’

21. R.S.G. Rutherford (1955), ‘Income Distributions: A New Model’

22. Lars Osberg (1977), ‘Stochastic Process Models and the Distribution of Earnings’

23. John Creedy (1977), ‘The Distribution of Lifetime Earnings’

24. Glenn C. Loury (1981), ‘Intergenerational Transfers and the Distribution of Earnings’

25. Gary S. Becker and Nigel Tomes (1979), ‘An Equilibrium Theory of the Distribution of Income and Intergenerational Mobility’

26. Steven N. Durlauf (1996), ‘A Theory of Persistent Income Inequality’

Name Index

Volume II Sources of Differences

Acknowledgements

An Introduction by the editor to all three volumes appears in Volume I

PART I CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS

1. Finis Welch (1969), ‘Linear Synthesis of Skill Distribution’

2. Robert E. B. Lucas (1977), ‘Is There a Human Capital Approach to Income Inequality?’

3. Zvi Griliches (1977), ‘Estimating the Returns to Schooling: Some Econometric Problems’

4. Orley Ashenfelter and Cecilia Rouse (1998), ‘Income, Schooling, and Ability: Evidence from a New Sample of Identical Twins’

5. Arthur S. Goldberger (1979), ‘Heritability’

6. Robert I. Lerman (1996), ‘The Impact of the Changing US Family Structure on Child Poverty and Income Inequality’

PART II HIERARCHIES, ORGANIZATION AND THE UPPER TAIL

7. Herbert A. Simon (1957), ‘The Compensation of Executives’

8. H.F. Lydall (1959), ‘The Distribution of Employment Incomes’

9. Thomas Mayer (1960), ‘The Distribution of Ability and Earnings’

10. Guillermo A. Calvo and Stanislaw Wellisz (1979), ‘Hierarchy, Ability, and Income Distribution’

11. Michael Waldman (1984), ‘Job Assignments, Signalling, and Efficiency’

12. Sherwin Rosen (1986), ‘Prizes and Incentives in Elimination Tournaments’

13. Dennis Snower (1998), ‘Causes of Changing Earnings Inequality’

PART III JOBS, INDUSTRIES AND DEMAND

14. Sumner H. Slichter (1950), ‘Notes on the Structure of Wages’

15. Melvin W. Reder (1969), ‘ A Partial Survey of the Theory of Income Size Distribution’

16. Michael Sattinger (1993), ‘Assignment Models of the Distribution of Earnings’

17. Joop Hartog (1986), ‘Earnings Functions: Beyond Human Capital’

18. Barry Bluestone and Bennett Harrison (1988), ‘The Growth of Low-Wage Employment: 1963–86’

19. Charles Brown (1980), ‘Equalizing Differences in the Labor Market’

20. William T. Dickens and Kevin Lang (1985), ‘A Test of Dual Labor Market Theory’

21. Th. Magnac (1991), ‘Segmented or Competitive Labor Markets?’

22. Erica L. Groshen (1991), ‘Five Reasons Why Wages Vary Among Employers’

23. James J. Heckman, Lance Lochner and Christopher Taber (1998), ‘Explaining Rising Wage Inequality: Explorations with a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Labor Earnings with Heterogeneous Agents’

PART IV MARKET AND NON-MARKET PROCESSES

24. Andrew Weiss (1995), ‘Human Capital vs. Signalling Explanations of Wages’

25. Michael Rothschild and Joseph E. Stiglitz (1982), ‘A Model of Employment Outcomes Illustrating the Effect of the Structure of Information on the Level and Distribution of Income’

26. Richard B. Freeman (1980), ‘Unionism and the Dispersion of Wages’

27. Adrian Wood (1995), ‘How Trade Hurt Unskilled Workers’

28. Jeffrey G. Williamson (1998), ‘Growth, Distribution, and Demography: Some Lessons from History’

29. Roland Benabou (1993), ‘Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production’

Name Index

Volume III - Income Shares and Policy

Acknowledgements

An Introduction by the editor to all three volumes appears in Volume I

PART I NEOCLASSICAL THEORIES OF FACTOR PAYMENTS AND FACTOR SHARES

1. M. Bronfenbrenner (1960), ‘A Note on Relative Shares and the Elasticity of Substitution’

2. Robert M. Solow (1958), ‘A Skeptical Note on the Constancy of Relative Shares’

3. Irving B. Kravis (1959), ‘Relative Income Shares in Fact and Theory’

4. Alan B. Krueger (1999), ‘Measuring Labor’s Share’

5. Zvi Griliches (1969), ‘Capital-Skill Complementarity’

6. Ryuzo Sato and Tetsunori Koizumi (1973), ‘The Production Function and the Theory of Distributive Shares’

7. H. Uzawa (1961), ‘Neutral Inventions and the Stability of Growth Equilibrium’

8. C.E. Ferguson (1968), ‘Neoclassical Theory of Technical Progress and Relative Factor Shares’

PART II NEO-KEYNESIAN, CLASSICAL AND OTHER THEORIES

9. Luigi L. Pasinetti (1960), ‘A Mathematical Formulation of the Ricardian System’

10. Michio Morishima (1974), ‘Marx in the Light of Modern Economic Theory’

11. Ian Steedman (1975), ‘Positive Profits with Negative Surplus Value’

12. Carl Christian von Weizsäcker (1973), ‘Modern Capital Theory and the Concept of Exploitation’

13. Michal Kalecki (1938/1991), ‘The Determinants of Distribution of the National Income’

14. Nicholas Kaldor (1955-56), ‘Alternative Theories of Distribution’

15. A.K. Sen (1963), ‘Neo-Classical and Neo-Keynesian Theories of Distribution’

16. L. Pasinetti (1962), ‘Rate of Profit and Income Distribution in Relation to the Rate of Economic Growth’

17. A.L. Levine (1974), ‘This Age of Leontief.....and Who? An Interpretation’

PART III CAPITAL THEORY AND PROFITS

18. Harry G. Johnson (1973), ‘Capital and Interest: The Wicksellian Model’

19. Joan Robinson (1954), ‘The Production Function and the Theory of Capital’

20. John Craven (1977), ‘On the Marginal Product of Capital’

21. Paul A. Samuelson (1966), ‘A Summing Up’

22. Leland B. Yeager (1976), ‘Toward Understanding some Paradoxes in Capital Theory’

23. G.C. Harcourt (1969/1986), ‘Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital’

24. Edwin Burmeister (1974), ‘Synthesizing the Neo-Austrian and Alternative Approaches to Capital Theory: A Survey’

PART IV PROFIT, INTEREST AND RENT

25. Joan Robinson (1951), ‘The Rate of Interest’

26. David E. Mills (1981), ‘The Non-Neutrality of Land Value Taxation’

27. T. Nicolaus Tideman (1982), ‘ A Tax on Land Value is Neutral’

28. Frank H. Knight (1950), ‘Profit’

PART V POLICIES

29. Peter J. Lambert (1985), ‘On the Redistributive Effect of Taxes and Benefits’

30. John Creedy (1996), ‘Comparing Tax and Transfer Systems: Poverty, Inequality and Target Efficiency’

31. Raquel Fernández and Richard Rogerson (1998), ‘Public Education and Income Distribution: A Dynamic Quantitative Evaluation of Education-Finance Reform’

32. Robert K. von Weizsäcker (1996), ‘Educational Choice, Lifetime Earnings Inequality, and Conflicts of Public Policy’

33. Roberto Perotti (1993), ‘Political Equilibrium, Income Distribution, and Growth’

34. Assar Lindbeck (1998), ‘How Can Economic Policy Strike a Balance Between Economic Efficiency and Income Equality?’

Name Index

Volume I Description, Measurement, Shape, Dynamics

Acknowledgements

Introduction Michael Sattinger

PART I DESCRIPTION AND MEASUREMENT

1. N.C. Kakwani (1977), ‘Applications of Lorenz Curves in Economic Analysis’

2. J. Aitchison and J.A.C. Brown (1954), ‘On Criteria for Descriptions of Income Distribution’

3. Camilo Dagum (1996), ‘A Systemic Approach to the Generation of Income Distribution Models’

4. Anthony B. Atkinson (1970), ‘On the Measurement of Inequality’

5. Amartya Sen (1978), ‘Ethical Measurement of Inequality: Some Difficulties’

6. Frank A. Cowell (1980), ‘On the Structure of Additive Inequality Measures’

7. A.F. Shorrocks (1982), ‘Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components’

8. A.B. Atkinson and F. Bourguignon (1982), ‘The Comparison of Multi-Dimensioned Distributions of Economic Status’

9. Simon Kuznets (1955), ‘Economic Growth and Income Inequality’

10. Gary S. Fields (1987), ‘Measuring Inequality Change in an Economy with Income Growth’

11. Peter Gottschalk and Timothy M. Smeeding (1997), ‘Cross-National Comparisons of Earnings and Income Inequality’

PART II THE SHAPE OF THE DISTRIBUTION

12. John Creedy (1977), ‘Pareto and the Distribution of Income’

13. Benoit Mandelbrot (1960), ‘The Pareto-Lévy Law and the Distribution of Income’

14. A.D. Roy (1951), ‘Some Thoughts on the Distribution of Earnings’

15. James J. Heckman and Guilherme L. Sedlacek (1990), ‘Self-Selection and the Distribution of Hourly Wages’

16. Jan Tinbergen (1956), ‘On the Theory of Income Distribution’

17. Hendrik Houthakker (1974), ‘The Size Distribution of Labour Incomes Derived from the Distribution of Aptitudes’

18. Michael Sattinger (1975), ‘Comparative Advantage and the Distributions of Earnings and Abilities’

19. Coen N. Teulings (1995), ‘The Wage Distribution in a Model of the Assignment of Skills to Jobs’

PART III DYNAMICS

20. D.G. Champernowne (1953), ‘A Model of Income Distribution’

21. R.S.G. Rutherford (1955), ‘Income Distributions: A New Model’

22. Lars Osberg (1977), ‘Stochastic Process Models and the Distribution of Earnings’

23. John Creedy (1977), ‘The Distribution of Lifetime Earnings’

24. Glenn C. Loury (1981), ‘Intergenerational Transfers and the Distribution of Earnings’

25. Gary S. Becker and Nigel Tomes (1979), ‘An Equilibrium Theory of the Distribution of Income and Intergenerational Mobility’

26. Steven N. Durlauf (1996), ‘A Theory of Persistent Income Inequality’

Name Index

Volume II Sources of Differences

Acknowledgements

An Introduction by the editor to all three volumes appears in Volume I

PART I CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS

1. Finis Welch (1969), ‘Linear Synthesis of Skill Distribution’

2. Robert E. B. Lucas (1977), ‘Is There a Human Capital Approach to Income Inequality?’

3. Zvi Griliches (1977), ‘Estimating the Returns to Schooling: Some Econometric Problems’

4. Orley Ashenfelter and Cecilia Rouse (1998), ‘Income, Schooling, and Ability: Evidence from a New Sample of Identical Twins’

5. Arthur S. Goldberger (1979), ‘Heritability’

6. Robert I. Lerman (1996), ‘The Impact of the Changing US Family Structure on Child Poverty and Income Inequality’

PART II HIERARCHIES, ORGANIZATION AND THE UPPER TAIL

7. Herbert A. Simon (1957), ‘The Compensation of Executives’

8. H.F. Lydall (1959), ‘The Distribution of Employment Incomes’

9. Thomas Mayer (1960), ‘The Distribution of Ability and Earnings’

10. Guillermo A. Calvo and Stanislaw Wellisz (1979), ‘Hierarchy, Ability, and Income Distribution’

11. Michael Waldman (1984), ‘Job Assignments, Signalling, and Efficiency’

12. Sherwin Rosen (1986), ‘Prizes and Incentives in Elimination Tournaments’

13. Dennis Snower (1998), ‘Causes of Changing Earnings Inequality’

PART III JOBS, INDUSTRIES AND DEMAND

14. Sumner H. Slichter (1950), ‘Notes on the Structure of Wages’

15. Melvin W. Reder (1969), ‘ A Partial Survey of the Theory of Income Size Distribution’

16. Michael Sattinger (1993), ‘Assignment Models of the Distribution of Earnings’

17. Joop Hartog (1986), ‘Earnings Functions: Beyond Human Capital’

18. Barry Bluestone and Bennett Harrison (1988), ‘The Growth of Low-Wage Employment: 1963–86’

19. Charles Brown (1980), ‘Equalizing Differences in the Labor Market’

20. William T. Dickens and Kevin Lang (1985), ‘A Test of Dual Labor Market Theory’

21. Th. Magnac (1991), ‘Segmented or Competitive Labor Markets?’

22. Erica L. Groshen (1991), ‘Five Reasons Why Wages Vary Among Employers’

23. James J. Heckman, Lance Lochner and Christopher Taber (1998), ‘Explaining Rising Wage Inequality: Explorations with a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Labor Earnings with Heterogeneous Agents’

PART IV MARKET AND NON-MARKET PROCESSES

24. Andrew Weiss (1995), ‘Human Capital vs. Signalling Explanations of Wages’

25. Michael Rothschild and Joseph E. Stiglitz (1982), ‘A Model of Employment Outcomes Illustrating the Effect of the Structure of Information on the Level and Distribution of Income’

26. Richard B. Freeman (1980), ‘Unionism and the Dispersion of Wages’

27. Adrian Wood (1995), ‘How Trade Hurt Unskilled Workers’

28. Jeffrey G. Williamson (1998), ‘Growth, Distribution, and Demography: Some Lessons from History’

29. Roland Benabou (1993), ‘Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production’

Name Index

Volume III - Income Shares and Policy

Acknowledgements

An Introduction by the editor to all three volumes appears in Volume I

PART I NEOCLASSICAL THEORIES OF FACTOR PAYMENTS AND FACTOR SHARES

1. M. Bronfenbrenner (1960), ‘A Note on Relative Shares and the Elasticity of Substitution’

2. Robert M. Solow (1958), ‘A Skeptical Note on the Constancy of Relative Shares’

3. Irving B. Kravis (1959), ‘Relative Income Shares in Fact and Theory’

4. Alan B. Krueger (1999), ‘Measuring Labor’s Share’

5. Zvi Griliches (1969), ‘Capital-Skill Complementarity’

6. Ryuzo Sato and Tetsunori Koizumi (1973), ‘The Production Function and the Theory of Distributive Shares’

7. H. Uzawa (1961), ‘Neutral Inventions and the Stability of Growth Equilibrium’

8. C.E. Ferguson (1968), ‘Neoclassical Theory of Technical Progress and Relative Factor Shares’

PART II NEO-KEYNESIAN, CLASSICAL AND OTHER THEORIES

9. Luigi L. Pasinetti (1960), ‘A Mathematical Formulation of the Ricardian System’

10. Michio Morishima (1974), ‘Marx in the Light of Modern Economic Theory’

11. Ian Steedman (1975), ‘Positive Profits with Negative Surplus Value’

12. Carl Christian von Weizsäcker (1973), ‘Modern Capital Theory and the Concept of Exploitation’

13. Michal Kalecki (1938/1991), ‘The Determinants of Distribution of the National Income’

14. Nicholas Kaldor (1955-56), ‘Alternative Theories of Distribution’

15. A.K. Sen (1963), ‘Neo-Classical and Neo-Keynesian Theories of Distribution’

16. L. Pasinetti (1962), ‘Rate of Profit and Income Distribution in Relation to the Rate of Economic Growth’

17. A.L. Levine (1974), ‘This Age of Leontief.....and Who? An Interpretation’

PART III CAPITAL THEORY AND PROFITS

18. Harry G. Johnson (1973), ‘Capital and Interest: The Wicksellian Model’

19. Joan Robinson (1954), ‘The Production Function and the Theory of Capital’

20. John Craven (1977), ‘On the Marginal Product of Capital’

21. Paul A. Samuelson (1966), ‘A Summing Up’

22. Leland B. Yeager (1976), ‘Toward Understanding some Paradoxes in Capital Theory’

23. G.C. Harcourt (1969/1986), ‘Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital’

24. Edwin Burmeister (1974), ‘Synthesizing the Neo-Austrian and Alternative Approaches to Capital Theory: A Survey’

PART IV PROFIT, INTEREST AND RENT

25. Joan Robinson (1951), ‘The Rate of Interest’

26. David E. Mills (1981), ‘The Non-Neutrality of Land Value Taxation’

27. T. Nicolaus Tideman (1982), ‘ A Tax on Land Value is Neutral’

28. Frank H. Knight (1950), ‘Profit’

PART V POLICIES

29. Peter J. Lambert (1985), ‘On the Redistributive Effect of Taxes and Benefits’

30. John Creedy (1996), ‘Comparing Tax and Transfer Systems: Poverty, Inequality and Target Efficiency’

31. Raquel Fernández and Richard Rogerson (1998), ‘Public Education and Income Distribution: A Dynamic Quantitative Evaluation of Education-Finance Reform’

32. Robert K. von Weizsäcker (1996), ‘Educational Choice, Lifetime Earnings Inequality, and Conflicts of Public Policy’

33. Roberto Perotti (1993), ‘Political Equilibrium, Income Distribution, and Growth’

34. Assar Lindbeck (1998), ‘How Can Economic Policy Strike a Balance Between Economic Efficiency and Income Equality?’

Name Index