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Law of the Environment and Armed Conflict

Edited by Karen Hulme, Professor of Law, University of Essex, UK
Forming part of a major series by Edward Elgar Publishing, Law of the Environment and Armed Conflict selects the most important and influential research articles relating to the protection of the environment in armed conflict. The book plots the trajectory of research on this issue from early weapons impacts and the Vietnam War, to the first major challenge for wartime environmental protections in the Gulf Conflict, liability for harm and possible future directions.

With an original introduction by the editor, this single volume will be an essential resource for researchers and policy makers alike.
Extent: c 904 pp
Hardback Price: $435.00 Web: $391.50
Publication Date: December 2017
ISBN: 978 1 78643 110 3
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  • Environment
  • Environmental Law
  • Law - Academic
  • Environmental Law
  • Public International Law
  • Terrorism and Security Law
Forming part of a major series by Edward Elgar Publishing, Law of the Environment and Armed Conflict selects the most important and influential research articles relating to the protection of the environment in armed conflict. The book plots the trajectory of research on this issue from early weapons impacts and the Vietnam War, to the first major challenge for wartime environmental protections in the Gulf Conflict, liability for harm and possible future directions.

With an original introduction by the editor, this single volume will be an essential resource for researchers and policy makers alike.

‘This book is the perfect introduction and research tool for all of us that wish to understand the most pertinent issues relating to law of the environment and armed conflict. The compilation is skilfully composed by one of the absolute authorities in the field, Professor Karen Hulme. Through the selection of articles she takes the reader on a historic journey, unveiling the contemporary legal and political context, including the connection between international disarmament law and the law of armed conflict. The contributions discussing the example of the Iraq-Kuwait War – brings the reader into the modern discourse and it is skilfully complemented by contributions on the role of customary international law, gaps and possibilities in current law as well as responsibility for wartime environmental damage. In the last section of the book, Professor Hulme ties it all together by, once again, including contributions that are placed in a modern legal and political context – as well as a look into the future. This is indeed a book to welcome.’
– Ambassador Marie Jacobsson, Former Member of the United Nations International Law Commission and Former Special Rapporteur for the topic Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflict
39 articles, dating from 1955 to 2013
Contributors include: M. Bothe, C.E. Bruch, D. Dam-de Jong, D. Fleck, A. Roberts, P.H. Sand, M.N. Schmitt, B. Sjöstedt, A.H. Westing








Contents:

Acknowledgements

Introduction Karen Hulme

PART I THE RATIONALES FOR PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN ARMED CONFLICT
1. Arthur H. Westing (1978), ‘Environmental Consequences of the Second Indochina War: A Case Study’, Ambio: War and Environment: A Special Issue, 4 (5/6), 216–22

2. Malvern Lumsden (1975), ‘“Conventional” War and Human Ecology’, Ambio: War and Environment: A Special Issue, 4 (5/6), 223–8

3. Geoffrey Best (1987), ‘The Historical Evolution of Cultural Norms Relating to War and the Environment,’ in Arthur H. Westing (ed.) Cultural Norms, War and the Environment, Chapter 2, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 18–28

4. Merrit P. Drucker (1989), ‘The Military Commander’s Responsibility for the Environment’, Environmental Ethics, 11 (2), Summer, 135–52

5. Major Bernard K. Schafer (1989), ‘The Relationship Between the International Laws of Armed Conflict and Environmental Protection: The Need to Reevaluate what Types of Conduct are Permissible During Hostilities’, California Western International Law Journal, 19 (2), 287–325 [39]

PART II EARLY DIRECTIONS
6. Emanuel Margolis (1955), ‘The Hydrogen Bomb Experiments and International Law’, Yale Law Journal, 64 (5), April, 629–47

7. Richard A. Falk (1973), ‘Environmental Warfare and Ecocide – Facts, Appraisal and Proposals’, Security Dialogue, 4 (1), March, 80–96

8. Jozef Goldblat (1977), ‘The Environmental Warfare Convention: How Meaningful is it?’, Ambio, 6 (4), 216–21

9. Hans Blix (1984), ‘Arms Control Treaties Aimed at Reducing the Military Impact on the Environment’, in Jerzy Makarczyk (ed.), Essays in International Law in Honour of Judge Manfred Lachs, The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 703–16

PART III THE ADVENT OF ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL I
10. George H. Aldrich (1986), ‘Progressive Development of the Laws of War: A Reply to Criticisms of the 1977 Geneva Protocol I’, Virginia Journal of International Law, 26 (3), 693–720

11. Waldemar A. Solf (2013), ‘Article 35–Basic Rules’, in Michael Bothe, Karl Josef Partsch and Waldemar A. Solf (eds) with the collaboration of Martin Eaton, New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts: Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 2nd edition, Reprint revised by Michael Bothe, The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 222–8

12. Waldemar A. Solf (2013), ‘Article 55–Protection of the Natural Environment’, in Michael Bothe, Karl Josef Partsch and Waldemar A. Solf (eds) with the collaboration of Martin Eaton, New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts: Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 2nd edition, Reprint revised by Michael Bothe, The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 385–90

PART IV THE LAW’S FIRST TEST: ANALYZING THE GULF CONFLICT
13. Betsy Baker (1993), ‘Legal Protections for the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict’, Virginia Journal of International Law, 33, April, 351–83

14. Adam Roberts (1992), ‘Environmental Destruction in the 1991 Gulf War’, International Review of the Red Cross, 32 (291), December, 538–53

15. Michael Bothe (1991), ‘The Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict: Legal Rules, Uncertainty, Deficiencies and Public Developments’, German Yearbook of International Law, 34, 54–62

16. Paul Fauteux (1992), ‘The Gulf War, the ENMOD Convention and the Review Conference’, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research Newsletter, 18, July, 6–12

17. Christopher York (1991), ‘International Law and the Collateral Effects of War on the Environment: The Persian Gulf’, South African Journal on Human Rights, 7, 269–90

18. Hans–Peter Gasser (1995), ‘For Better Protection of the Natural Environment in Armed Conflict: A Proposal for Action’, American Journal of International Law, 89 (3), July, 637–44

19. Wolff Heintschel von Heihegg and Michael Donner (1994), ‘New Developments in the Protection of the Natural Environment in Navel Armed Conflicts’, German Yearbook of International Law, 37, 281–314

20. Peter H. Sand (2005), ‘Compensation for Environmental Damage from the 1991 Gulf War’, Environmental Policy and Law, 35 (6), 244–9

PART V THE CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW STUDY
21. Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck (2005) ‘The Natural Environment’, in Customary International Humanitarian Law, Volume 1, Rules, Chapter 14, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 143–58

22. Karen Hulme (2007), ‘Natural Environment’, in Elizabeth Wilmshurst and Susan Breau (eds), Perspectives on the ICRC Study on the Customary International Humanitarian Law, Chapter 8, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 204–37

PART VI GAPS AND POSSIBILITIES IN THE CURRENT LAW
23. Wil D. Verwey (1995), ‘Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict: In Search of a New Legal Perspective’, Leiden Journal of International Law, 8 (1), 7–40

24. Peter J. Richards and Michael N. Schmitt (1999), ‘Mars Meets Mother Nature: Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict’, Stetson Law Review, XXVIII, 1047–92

25. Karen Hulme (2010), ‘Taking Care to Protect the Environment Against Damage: A Meaningless Obligation?’, International Review of the Red Cross, 92 (879), September, 675–91

26. Michael Bothe, Carl Brunch, Jordan Diamond and David Jensen (2010), ‘International Law Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict, Gaps and Opportunities’, International Review of the Red Cross, 92 (879), September, 569–92

27. Dieter Fleck (2013), ‘The Protection of the Environment in Armed Conflict: Legal Obligations in the Absence of Specific Rules’, Nordic Journal of International Law, Special Issue: War and the Environment, 82 (1), 7–20

PART VII WEAPONS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
28. Janet E. Lord (1995), ‘Legal Restraints in the Use of Landmines: Humanitarian and Environmental Crisis’, California Western International Law Journal, 25 (2), 311–55

29. Avril McDonald (2008), ‘Depleted Uranium Weapons: The Next Target for Disarmament’, Disarmament Forum, (3), 17–24

30. Hitoshi Nasu (2012), ‘Nanotechnology and Challenges to International Humanitarian Law: A Preliminary Legal Assessment’, International Review of the Red Cross, 94 (886), Summer, 653–72

PART VIII RESPONSIBILITY FOR WARTIME ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE
31. Christopher Greenwood (1996), ‘State Responsibility and Civil Liability for Environmental Damage Caused by Military Operations’, in Richard J. Grunawalt, John E. King and Ronald S. McClain (eds), Protection of the Environment During Armed Conflict, International Law Studies, 69, Chapter XXIII, Newport, RI: Navel War College, 397–415

32. Tara Weinstein (2005), ‘Prosecuting Attacks that Destroy the Environment: Environmental Crimes or Humanitarian Atrocities’, Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 17 (4), Summer, 697–722

33. Carl E. Bruch (2001), ‘All’s Not Fair in (Civil) Law: Criminal Liability for Environmental Damage in Internal Armed Conflict’, Vermont Law Review, 25, 695–752

PART IX THE BROADER DEBATES AND RECENT DIRECTIONS IN THE RESEARCH
34. Brendan Kearns (2012), ‘When Bonobos Meet Guerillas: Preserving Biodiversity on the Battlefield’, Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 24 (2), Winter, 123-68

35. Britta Sjöstedt (2013), ‘The Role of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in Armed Conflict: “Green-Keeping” in Virunga Park. Applying the UNESCO World Heritage Convention in the Armed Conflict of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’, Nordic Journal of International Law, 82 (1), 129–53

36. Mara Tignino (2010), ‘Water, International Peace, and Security’, International Review of the Red Cross, 92 (879), September, 647-74

37. Silja Vöneky (2000), ‘A New Shield for the Environment: Peacetime Treaties as Legal Restraints of Wartime Damage’, Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 9 (1), April, 20–32

38. Daniëla Dam-de-Jong (2013), ‘From Engines for Conflict into Engines for Sustainable Development: The Potential of International Law to Address Predatory Exploitation of Natural Resources in Situations of Internal Armed Conflict’, Nordic Journal of International Law, 82 (1), 155–77

39. Carl Bruch, David Jensen, Mikiyasu Nakayama, Jon Unruh, Rebecca Gruby and Ross Wolfarth (2009), ‘Post-Conflict Peace Building and Natural Resources’, Yearbook of International Environmental Law, 19 (1), 58-96

Index