Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance


Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance

9781800880085 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Kevin P. Kearns, Professor Emeritus, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh and Wenjiun Wang, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Sam Houston State University, US
Publication Date: December 2023 ISBN: 978 1 80088 008 5 Extent: c 666 pp
The Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance is the ultimate reference guide for those interested in the rapidly growing nonprofit sector. Each insightful entry includes a definition of the concept, practical applications in nonprofit organizations, and discussion of current issues and future directions.

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The Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance is the ultimate reference guide for those interested in the rapidly growing nonprofit sector. Each insightful entry includes a definition of the concept, practical applications in nonprofit organizations, and discussion of current issues and future directions.

With contributions from over 200 renowned experts in the field, this Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the essential topics related to nonprofit management, leadership and governance. Entries explore a diverse range of issues and actors within the nonprofit sector, including business planning, crowdfunding and fundraising, governing boards, mergers and acquisitions, risk management, stakeholder management and wealth inequality. They cover the foundations of the sector alongside more current and topical issues including celebrity, diaspora, LGBTQ+ and e-philanthropy; authoritarian regimes; the digital divide; and the Millennial generation’s civic engagement.

This Encyclopedia is a vital resource for students and scholars of organization studies, business and management, corporate governance, and public administration. Its practical applications will prove beneficial to a diverse range of stakeholders across the nonprofit sector, including professional managers, board members, donors, government officials, and media professionals.

• Fully cross referenced and accessible in style
• Authoritative summaries of nearly 200 essential topics
• Written by leading scholars and practitioners across the field
• Provides definitions, applications, and discussions of current issues and future directions

Contributors include: Rikki Abzug, Jin Ai, Kunle Akingbola, Lisa S. Alfredson, Theresa Anasti, Fredrik O. Andersson, Robert C. Andringa, Susan Appe, Shelly Arsneault, Michael J. Austin, Putnam Barber, Erynn E. Beaton, Bob Beatty, Gregg Behr, David A. Bell, Lehn M. Benjamin, Ruth Sessler Bernstein, Abhishek Bhati, Angela L. Bies, Tony Bovaird, Melanie Boyce, Patricia Bradshaw, Rachel G. Bratt, Beth Breeze, William A. Brown, Kathleen W. Buechel, Alicia C. Bunger, Andrew Douglas Burk, Brenda K. Bushouse, Thad D. Calabrese, David Callahan, Leonor Camarena, Alexander C. Campbell, David A. Campbell, Julia L. Carboni, Joanne G. Carman, Archie B. Carroll, Nicholas J. Chakos, Yuan (Daniel) Cheng, Grace L. Chikoto-Schultz, Robert K. Christensen, Tristan Claridge, E. Gil Clary, Kate Cooney, Jacqueline Bouvier Copeland, Carolyn Cordery, Joseph Cordes, Tracey M. Coule, Julie Fisher Cummings, Elizabeth J. Dale, Andrew Davis, Arjen de Wit, Shuyi Deng, Jed DeVaro, Constance Devereaux, Dragana Djukic-Min, Dana R.H. Doan, Noah D. Drezner, Alnoor Ebrahim Christopher J. Einolf, Todd L. Ely, Karen Wolk Feinstein, Shawn Teresa Flanigan, Joy Folkedal, Michael. R. Ford, Berkeley Franz, Peter Frumkin, Sarah A. Garven, Bobbi Watt Geer, Sheldon Gen, Heather Getha-Taylor, Cécile Godfroid, David Gras Nathan J. Grasse, Thomas K. Gregoire, Kirsten A. Grønbjerg, Mary Kay Gugerty, Chao Guo, Thomas W. Haase, Mark A. Hager, Leon L. Haley, Femida Handy, Erica E. Harris, Margaret Harris, Teresa D. Harrison, Eileen R. Heisman, Barry T. Hirsch, Timothy J. Hoffman, Marek Hudon, Chiako Hung, Elizabeth Ireland, Russell N. James III, Kristina Jaskyte, Bok Gyo Jeong, Ryne A. Jones, Kevin P. Kearns, Lisa A. Keister, Janelle A. Kerlin, Sabith Khan, M.D. Kinoti, William M. Klimon, Colin Knox, Wenjue Knutsen, David La Piana, Marc Labie, Marcus Lam, Kristina T. Lambright, Claire Le Barbenchon, Jesse D. Lecy, Janine Lee Madeline Y. Lee, Young-joo Lee, Tianyi Li Penina, K. Lieber, Gordon Liu, Elke Loeffler, Jiahuan Lu, Ji MaCaitlen Macias, David A. Macpherson, Nadeen Makhlouf, Lynda Mansson, Hanjin Mao, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer, Bowen McBeath, Khrista McCarden, Lindsey McDougle, John McNutt, Stuart Mendel, Debra Mesch, Seth J. Meyer, David Miller, Judith L. Millesen, Carl Milofsky, Roseanne M. Mirabella, George E. Mitchell, Arisa Miyakozawa, Michael Moody, Laurie Mook, Kennedy Musyoka, Sarah K. Nathan, Dennis Neier, Paul J. Nelson, Michaela Neumayr, Brent Never, Tamaki Onishi, Joycelyn Ovalle, Laurie E. Paarlberg, Susan D. Phillips, Jaclyn Piatak, Shawn Pope, Christopher R. Prentice, Heng Qu, Paloma Raggo, Kimberly M. Reeve, Anne-Mie Reheul, David O. Renz, Matthew Rice,Theresa Ricke-Kiely, Scott E. Robison, Barbara S. Romzek, Allison R. Russell, Paul Salipante, Harry Sandick, Richard C. Sansing, T. Laine Scales, Jo Anne Schneider, Elizabeth A.M. Searing, Stephen Sherman, Jeremy C. Short, Mark Sidel, Margaret F. Sloan, Steven Rathgeb Smith, Mark Snyder, Richard S. Steinberg, Amanda J. Stewart, Douglas Bitonti Stewart, Arthur A. Stukas, Eugene R. Tempel, Stefan Toepler, Omer Topaloglu, Madeline Toubiana, Tom Van Caneghem, Hilde Van den Bulck, Shannon K. Vaughan, Georg von Schnurbein, Anne Wallestad, Wenjiun Wang, Richard D. Waters, Rasheda L. Weaver, Pamala Wiepking, Jurgen Willems, Gavin Williamson, Jessica K. A. Word, Walter Wymer, Gaynor Yancey, Meng Ye, Dennis R. Young, Justin Zaremby, John T. Zietlow, Annette Zimmer, Samantha Zuhlke
Introduction to Elgar
Encyclopedia of Nonprofit
Management, Leadership and
Governance xvii
Kevin P. Kearns and Wenjiun Wang

Accountability 1
Barbara S. Romzek
Accounting practices, rules, and
standards 7
Carolyn Cordery
Accreditation 10
Madeline Y. Lee
Administration costs 13
Tianyi Li, Elizabeth A. M. Searing
and Jesse D. Lecy
Advocacy 16
Sheldon Gen
Affordable care act (Obamacare) 20
Berkeley Franz
Antitrust 23
Alexander C. Campbell
Articles of incorporation 24
William M. Klimon
Arts and cultural organizations 27
Constance DeVereaux
Audit 29
Anne-Mie Reheul and Tom Van
Authoritarian regimes and the
nonprofit community 32
Mark Sidel
Beneficiaries 36
Lehn M. Benjamin
Black philanthropy 38
Jacqueline Bouvier Copeland
Board policies manual 45
Robert C. Andringa
Branding and brand strategies 47
Walter Wymer
Budget process 49
Marcus Lam and Bob Beatty
Business planning 53
David La Piana
Bylaws 55
William M. Klimon
Campaign: Annual campaign 58
Bobbi Watt Geer
Campaign: Capital Campaign 60
Eugene R. Tempel and Sarah K. Nathan
Capacity building 64
Judith L. Millesen
Careers and preparation 68
Amanda J. Stewart and Ryne A. Jones
Case for support 70
Karen Wolk Feinstein
Cause-related marketing 73
Gordon Liu
Celebrity philanthropy 75
Hilde Van den Bulck
Charitable giving 78
Kevin P. Kearns
Charity Law 80
Alexander C. Campbell
Chief executive director: Compensation 84
Nathan J. Grasse and Leonor Camarena
Chief executive officer:
Performance review 87
Jessica K. A. Word
Chief executive officer:
Relations with the board of directors 89
Scott E. Robison
Civic agency 92
Jo Anne Schneider
Civil rights organizations 95
Leon L. Haley
Civil society 98
Annette Zimmer
Collaboration strategies 101
Stuart Mendel
Commercialism 105
Janelle A. Kerlin and Meng Ye
Commons 109
Brenda K. Bushouse, Brent Never and
Robert K. Christensen
Community foundations 113
Laurie E. Paarlberg
Community-based organizations 116
Carl Milofsky and Margaret Harris
Comparative perspectives on
nonprofit organizations 118
Paul J. Nelson
Competition 122
Omer Topaloglu
Competitive forces 124
Teresa D. Harrison
Conversion foundations 127
Karen Wolk Feinstein
Co-production 130
Tony Bovaird and Elke Loeffler
Corporate foundations 132
Kathleen W. Buechel
Corporate philanthropy 136
Georg von Schnurbein
Corporate social responsibility 138
Archie B. Carroll
Crisis management 142
Thomas W. Haase
Crowdfunding 146
Jeremy C. Short
Crowding out 148
Joycelyn Ovalle and Ji Ma
Cultural competence 150
Heather Getha-Taylor
Curricula for nonprofit
management in higher education 152
Roseanne M. Mirabella and Timothy
J. Hoffman
Democracy and philanthropy 159
Wenjiun Wang
Diaspora philanthropy 161
Shawn Teresa Flanigan
Digital divide 165
Jaclyn Piatak
Dissolution of nonprofit organizations 168
Jiahuan Lu
Diversity, equity, and inclusion 171
Ruth Sessler Bernstein and Paul
Donor advised funds 177
Eileen R. Heisman
Donor and donor motivation 180
Kevin P. Kearns
Donor choice 185
Michaela Neumayr
Donor retention and stewardship 189
Richard D. Waters
Earned income 192
Kimberly M. Reeve
Education-focused organizations 195
Gregg Behr
Effectiveness of nonprofit organizations 198
David O. Renz and Elizabeth Ireland
Endowment 202
Thad D. Calabrese and Todd L. Ely
ePhilanthropy 207
Abhishek Bhati and Andrew Douglas Burk
Faith and philanthropy 211
Sabith Khan
Faith and volunteering 213
M. D. Kinoti
Faith-based organizations 216
Gaynor Yancey
Family philanthropy 220
Julie Fisher Cummings, Douglas
Bitonti Stewart and Caitlen Macias
Federation 222
Patricia Bradshaw and Madeline
Financial documents and control 226
John T. Zietlow
Financial performance indicators 230
Tianyi Li and Elizabeth A. M. Searing
Financial ratios 234
Christopher R. Prentice
Financing nonprofit organizations 238
George E. Mitchell and Elizabeth A.
M. Searing
Fiscal sponsor 242
Fredrik O. Andersson
Forming a nonprofit organization 245
William M. Klimon
Foundations – History and functions 248
Stefan Toepler
Founder’s syndrome 250
Joanne G. Carman
Fraud and corruption 253
Carolyn Cordery
Fraud detection and investigation 255
Dennis Neier, Harry Sandick and
Justin Zaremby
Fundraising 261
Kirsten A. Grønbjerg
Gender and philanthropy 268
Debra Mesch
Giving circle 273
Julia L. Carboni
Global conflict and philanthropy 274
Colin Knox
Governance 277
Anne Wallestad, Joy Folkedal and
Andrew Davis
Governing board: Chairperson 280
Kevin P. Kearns
Governing board: Composition 283
William A. Brown
Governing board: Dynamics and
meeting management 287
Michael. R. Ford
Governing board: Membership 290
Anne Wallestad, Joy Folkedal and
Andrew Davis
Governing board: Responsibilities 292
Anne Wallestad, Joy Folkedal and
Andrew Davis
Government failure theory 296
Laurie E. Paarlberg and Samantha
Government funding and
contract management 299
Steven Rathgeb Smith
Grant 303
Janine Lee, David Miller and Stephen
Grassroots international
nonprofit organizations 307
Susan Appe
Growth strategies 309
David Gras and Gavin Williamson
Housing organizations 313
Rachel G. Bratt
Human service organizations 316
Bowen McBeath and Michael J. Austin
Hybrid organizations 320
Wenjue Knutsen
Identity-based philanthropy 324
Noah D. Drezner
Impact investing 326
Wenjue Knutsen
Income portfolio analysis 328
Hanjin Mao and Lindsey McDougle
Industry analysis 331
Kevin P. Kearns
Innovation in nonprofit organizations 334
Kristina Jaskyte
Institutional isomorphism 338
Nadeen Makhlouf
Intermediate sanctions 340
Bok Gyo Jeong
Internal Revenue Service 343
David A. Bell
International aid 346
David A. Bell
Investment policy statement 349
Matthew Rice
Journals, periodicals, and associations 353
Wenjiun Wang and Kevin P. Kearns
Leadership 359
Kevin P. Kearns
Leadership succession 362
Amanda J. Stewart and Ryne A. Jones
LGBTQ+ philanthropy 366
Elizabeth J. Dale
Lifecycles of nonprofit organizations 369
Rikki Abzug
Limited life foundations 371
Lynda Mansson
Major donors 375
Beth Breeze
Managerialism 377
Kevin P. Kearns
Marketing 380
Walter Wymer
Membership associations 383
Kevin P. Kearns
Mental health organizations 386
Alicia C. Bunger and Thomas K.
Mergers and acquisitions 389
Theresa Ricke-Kiely
Microfinance 393
Cécile Godfroid, Marek Hudon and
Marc Labie
Millennial generation’s civic
engagement 395
Young-joo Lee
Mission and economics 398
Richard S. Steinberg
Mission statement 400
Kevin P. Kearns
Motivation: Paid staff 403
Jed DeVaro
Motivation: Volunteers 406
Arthur A. Stukas, Mark Snyder and E.
Gil Clary
Multisite nonprofit organizations 409
Seth J. Meyer
Nascent organizations 412
Fredrik O. Andersson
Nongovernmental organizations 413
Paloma Raggo
Nonprofit sector 417
Peter Frumkin and Mark A. Hager
Operating foundations 421
Khrista McCarden
Operating reserves 423
Thad D. Calabrese
Payout requirement 426
Richard C. Sansing
Performance management 428
David A. Campbell and Kristina T.
Philanthropy: Definition and history 433
Michael Moody
Place-based philanthropy 436
Susan D. Phillips
Planned giving 440
Russell N. James III
Politics and philanthropy 443
David Callahan
Principal-Agent Theory 446
Tracey M. Coule
Private foundations 449
Michael Moody
Private inurement prohibition 453
Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer
Professionalism 456
Kevin P. Kearns
Program evaluation 459
Lehn M. Benjamin, Dana R. H. Doan,
Alnoor Ebrahim and Mary Kay Gugerty
Program-related investments 463
Heng Qu
Project management 465
Nicholas J. Chakos
Public charity 469
Penina K. Lieber
Public policy and nonprofit
organizations 472
Shannon K. Vaughan and Shelly
Public relations 474
Richard D. Waters
Public trust in nonprofit organizations 477
Jurgen Willems
Recruitment and retention 480
Kunle Akingbola
Refugee services 484
Lisa S. Alfredson
Regulation of nonprofit organizations 487
Putnam Barber
Resilience management 493
Dennis R. Young
Restricted / unrestricted funds 496
ChiaKo Hung, Arjen de Wit and
Pamala Wiepking
Retrenchment strategies 499
Yuan (Daniel) Cheng and Shuyi Deng
Revenue diversification 502
Heng Qu
Risk management 506
Grace L. Chikoto-Schultz
Sarbanes-Oxley Act 510
Sarah A. Garven
Self-help groups 512
Melanie Boyce
Self-regulation 514
Angela L. Bies
Service portfolio analysis 518
Kevin P. Kearns
Settlement house 521
T. Laine Scales
Sexual harassment 523
Erynn E. Beaton and Elizabeth J. Dale
Social capital 526
Tristan Claridge
Social change and nonprofit
organizations 529
Theresa Anasti
Social economy 533
Laurie Mook
Social enterprise 535
Wenjue Knutsen
Social entrepreneurship 538
Rasheda L. Weaver
Social responsibility of nonprofit
organizations 541
Shawn Pope
Social return on investment 544
Kate Cooney
Stakeholder management 548
Kevin P. Kearns
Strategic analysis: SWOT 551
Kevin P. Kearns
Strategic human resource management 553
Kunle Akingbola
Strategic planning 559
David La Piana
Supporting organizations 564
Penina K. Lieber
Tax policy: Federal 567
Joseph Cordes
Tax policy: State and local 571
Joseph Cordes
Technology and social media 574
Chao Guo and John McNutt
Transparency 578
Erica E. Harris
Triple bottom line 581
Dragana Djukic-Min, Allison R.
Russell and Elizabeth A. M. Searing
Unfair competition 585
Alexander C. Campbell
United Way 587
Laurie E. Paarlberg and Jin Ai
Unrelated business income 590
Alexander C. Campbell
Venture philanthropy 592
Tamaki Onishi and Arisa Miyakozawa
Voluntarism 595
Allison R. Russell and Femida Handy
Volunteer management 600
Christopher J. Einolf
Wage equity within and across sectors 604
David A. Macpherson and Barry
T. Hirsch
Watchdog organizations 609
Margaret F. Sloan and Kennedy
Wealth inequality 611
Claire Le Barbenchon and Lisa A.
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