Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance


Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance

9781800880085 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Kevin P. Kearns, Professor Emeritus, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh and Wenjiun Wang, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Sam Houston State University, US
Publication Date: 2023 ISBN: 978 1 80088 008 5 Extent: 650 pp
The Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance is the ultimate reference guide for those interested in the rapidly growing nonprofit sector. Each insightful entry includes a definition of the concept, practical applications in nonprofit organizations, and discussion of current issues and future directions.

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The Elgar Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership and Governance is the ultimate reference guide for those interested in the rapidly growing nonprofit sector. Each insightful entry includes a definition of the concept, practical applications in nonprofit organizations, and discussion of current issues and future directions.

With contributions from over 200 renowned experts in the field, this Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the essential topics related to nonprofit management, leadership and governance. Entries explore a diverse range of issues and actors within the nonprofit sector, including business planning, crowdfunding and fundraising, governing boards, mergers and acquisitions, risk management, stakeholder management and wealth inequality. They cover the foundations of the sector alongside more current and topical issues including celebrity, diaspora, LGBTQ+ and ePhilanthropy; authoritarian regimes; the digital divide; and the millennial generation’s civic engagement.

This Encyclopedia is a vital resource for students and scholars of organization studies, business and management, corporate governance, and public administration. Its practical applications will prove beneficial to a diverse range of stakeholders across the nonprofit sector, including professional managers, board members, donors, government officials, and media professionals.

• Fully cross referenced and accessible in style
• Authoritative summaries of nearly 200 essential topics
• Written by leading scholars and practitioners across the field
• Provides definitions, applications, and discussions of current issues and future directions

Contributors: Rikki Abzug, Jin Ai, Kunle Akingbola, Lisa S. Alfredson, Theresa Anasti, Fredrik O. Andersson, Robert C. Andringa, Susan Appe, Shelly Arsneault, Michael J. Austin, Putnam Barber, Erynn E. Beaton, Bob Beatty, Gregg Behr, David A. Bell, Lehn M. Benjamin, Ruth Sessler Bernstein, Abhishek Bhati, Angela L. Bies, Tony Bovaird, Melanie Boyce, Patricia Bradshaw, Rachel G. Bratt, Beth Breeze, William A. Brown, Kathleen W. Buechel, Alicia C. Bunger, Andrew Douglas Burk, Brenda K. Bushouse, Thad D. Calabrese, David Callahan, Leonor Camarena, Alexander C. Campbell, David A. Campbell, Julia L. Carboni, Joanne G. Carman, Archie B. Carroll, Nicholas J. Chakos, Yuan (Daniel) Cheng, Grace L. Chikoto-Schultz, Robert K. Christensen, Tristan Claridge, E. Gil Clary, Kate Cooney, Jacqueline Bouvier Copeland, Carolyn Cordery, Joseph Cordes, Tracey M. Coule, Julie Fisher Cummings, Elizabeth J. Dale, Andrew Davis, Arjen de Wit, Shuyi Deng, Jed DeVaro, Constance Devereaux, Dragana Djukic-Min, Dana R.H. Doan, Noah D. Drezner, Alnoor Ebrahim Christopher J. Einolf, Todd L. Ely, Karen Wolk Feinstein, Shawn Teresa Flanigan, Joy Folkedal, Michael. R. Ford, Berkeley Franz, Peter Frumkin, Sarah A. Garven, Bobbi Watt Geer, Sheldon Gen, Heather Getha-Taylor, Cécile Godfroid, David Gras Nathan J. Grasse, Thomas K. Gregoire, Kirsten A. Grønbjerg, Mary Kay Gugerty, Chao Guo, Thomas W. Haase, Mark A. Hager, Leon L. Haley, Femida Handy, Erica E. Harris, Margaret Harris, Teresa D. Harrison, Eileen R. Heisman, Barry T. Hirsch, Timothy J. Hoffman, Marek Hudon, Chiako Hung, Elizabeth Ireland, Russell N. James III, Kristina Jaskyte, Bok Gyo Jeong, Ryne A. Jones, Kevin P. Kearns, Lisa A. Keister, Janelle A. Kerlin, Sabith Khan, M.D. Kinoti, William M. Klimon, Colin Knox, Wenjue Knutsen, David La Piana, Marc Labie, Marcus Lam, Kristina T. Lambright, Claire Le Barbenchon, Jesse D. Lecy, Janine Lee Madeline Y. Lee, Young-joo Lee, Tianyi Li Penina, K. Lieber, Gordon Liu, Elke Loeffler, Jiahuan Lu, Ji MaCaitlen Macias, David A. Macpherson, Nadeen Makhlouf, Lynda Mansson, Hanjin Mao, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer, Bowen McBeath, Khrista McCarden, Lindsey McDougle, John McNutt, Stuart Mendel, Debra Mesch, Seth J. Meyer, David Miller, Judith L. Millesen, Carl Milofsky, Roseanne M. Mirabella, George E. Mitchell, Arisa Miyakozawa, Michael Moody, Laurie Mook, Kennedy Musyoka, Sarah K. Nathan, Dennis Neier, Paul J. Nelson, Michaela Neumayr, Brent Never, Tamaki Onishi, Joycelyn Ovalle, Laurie E. Paarlberg, Susan D. Phillips, Jaclyn Piatak, Shawn Pope, Christopher R. Prentice, Heng Qu, Paloma Raggo, Kimberly M. Reeve, Anne-Mie Reheul, David O. Renz, Matthew Rice,Theresa Ricke-Kiely, Scott E. Robison, Barbara S. Romzek, Allison R. Russell, Paul Salipante, Harry Sandick, Richard C. Sansing, T. Laine Scales, Jo Anne Schneider, Elizabeth A.M. Searing, Stephen Sherman, Jeremy C. Short, Mark Sidel, Margaret F. Sloan, Steven Rathgeb Smith, Mark Snyder, Richard S. Steinberg, Amanda J. Stewart, Douglas Bitonti Stewart, Arthur A. Stukas, Eugene R. Tempel, Stefan Toepler, Omer Topaloglu, Madeline Toubiana, Tom Van Caneghem, Hilde Van den Bulck, Shannon K. Vaughan, Georg von Schnurbein, Anne Wallestad, Wenjiun Wang, Richard D. Waters, Rasheda L. Weaver, Pamala Wiepking, Jurgen Willems, Gavin Williamson, Jessica K. A. Word, Walter Wymer, Gaynor Yancey, Meng Ye, Dennis R. Young, Justin Zaremby, John T. Zietlow, Annette Zimmer, Samantha Zuhlke

Introduction to Elgar Encyclopedia
of Nonprofit Management,
Leadership and Governance xvii
Kevin P. Kearns and Wenjiun Wang
Accountability 1
Barbara S. Romzek
Accounting practices, rules, and standards 7
Carolyn Cordery
Accreditation 10
Madeline Y. Lee
Administration costs 13
Tianyi Li, Elizabeth A. M. Searing
and Jesse D. Lecy
Advocacy 16
Sheldon Gen
Affordable care act 20
Berkeley Franz
Antitrust 23
Alexander C. Campbell
Articles of incorporation 24
William M. Klimon
Arts and cultural organizations 26
Constance DeVereaux
Audit 29
Anne-Mie Reheul and Tom Van
Authoritarian regimes and the
nonprofit community 32
Mark Sidel
Beneficiaries 36
Lehn M. Benjamin
Black philanthropy 38
Jacqueline Bouvier Copeland
Board policies manual 45
Robert C. Andringa
Branding and brand strategies 47
Walter Wymer
Budget process 49
Marcus Lam and Bob Beatty
Business planning 53
David La Piana
Bylaws 55
William M. Klimon
Campaign: Annual campaign 58
Bobbi Watt Geer
Campaign: Capital Campaign 60
Eugene R. Tempel and
Sarah K. Nathan
Capacity building 64
Judith L. Millesen
Careers and preparation 68
Amanda J. Stewart and
Ryne A. Crout Jones
Case for support 71
Karen Wolk Feinstein
Cause-related marketing 73
Gordon Liu
Celebrity philanthropy 76
Hilde Van den Bulck
Charitable giving 78
Kevin P. Kearns
Charity law 80
Alexander C. Campbell
Chief executive director:
Compensation 84
Nathan J. Grasse and
Leonor Camarena
Chief executive officer:
Performance review 87
Jessica K. A. Word
Chief executive officer: Relations
with the board of directors 90
Scott E. Robison
Civic agency 93
Jo Anne Schneider
Civil rights organizations 96
Leon L. Haley
Civil society 98
Annette Zimmer
Collaboration strategies 101
Stuart Mendel
Commercialism 105
Janelle A. Kerlin and Meng Ye
Commons 109
Brenda K. Bushouse, Brent Never
and Robert K. Christensen
Community foundations 113
Laurie E. Paarlberg
Community-based organizations 116
Carl Milofsky and Margaret Harris
Comparative perspectives on
nonprofit organizations 118
Paul J. Nelson
Competition 122
Omer Topaloglu
Competitive forces 125
Teresa D. Harrison
Conversion foundations 128
Karen Wolk Feinstein
Co-production 130
Tony Bovaird and Elke Loeffler
Corporate foundations 133
Kathleen W. Buechel
Corporate philanthropy 136
Georg von Schnurbein
Corporate social responsibility 139
Archie B. Carroll
Crisis management 143
Thomas W. Haase
Crowdfunding 146
Jeremy C. Short
Crowding out 148
Joycelyn Ovalle and Ji Ma
Cultural competence 151
Heather Getha-Taylor
Curricula for nonprofit
management in higher education 153
Roseanne M. Mirabella and
Timothy J. Hoffman
Democracy and philanthropy 159
Wenjiun Wang
Diaspora philanthropy 161
Shawn Teresa Flanigan
Digital divide 165
Jaclyn Piatak
Dissolution of nonprofit
organizations 168
Jiahuan Lu
Diversity, equity, and inclusion 171
Ruth Sessler Bernstein and
Paul Salipante
Donor-advised funds 177
Eileen R. Heisman
Donor and donor motivation 180
Kevin P. Kearns
Donor choice 185
Michaela Neumayr
Donor retention and stewardship 188
Richard D. Waters
Earned income 192
Kimberly M. Reeve
Education-focused organizations 195
Gregg Behr
Effectiveness of nonprofit
organizations 198
David O. Renz and
Elizabeth Ireland
Endowment 202
Thad D. Calabrese
and Todd L. Ely
ePhilanthropy 207
Abhishek Bhati and Andrew
Douglas Burk
Faith and philanthropy 211
Sabith Khan
Faith and volunteering 213
M. D. Kinoti
Faith-based organizations 216
Gaynor Yancey
Family philanthropy 220
Julie Fisher Cummings,
Douglas Bitonti Stewart
and Caitlen Macias
Federation 222
Patricia Bradshaw and
Madeline Toubiana
Financial documents and control 226
John T. Zietlow
Financial performance indicators 230
Tianyi Li and
Elizabeth A. M. Searing
Financial ratios 234
Christopher R. Prentice
Financing nonprofit organizations 238
George E. Mitchell and
Elizabeth A. M. Searing
Fiscal sponsor 243
Fredrik O. Andersson
Forming a nonprofit organization 245
William M. Klimon
Foundations – History and functions 248
Stefan Toepler
Founder’s syndrome 251
Joanne G. Carman
Fraud and corruption 253
Carolyn Cordery
Fraud detection and investigation 256
Dennis Neier, Harry Sandick
and Justin Zaremby
Fundraising 261
Kirsten A. Grønbjerg
Gender and philanthropy 268
Debra Mesch
Giving circles 273
Julia L. Carboni
Global conflict and philanthropy 275
Colin Knox
Governance 278
Anne Wallestad, Joy Folkedal
and Andrew Davis
Governing board: Chairperson 280
Kevin P. Kearns
Governing board: Composition 283
William A. Brown
Governing board: Dynamics and
meeting management 287
Michael R. Ford
Governing board: Membership 290
Anne Wallestad, Joy Folkedal and
Andrew Davis
Governing board: Responsibilities 292
Anne Wallestad, Joy Folkedal and
Andrew Davis
Government failure theory 296
Laurie E. Paarlberg and
Samantha Zuhlke
Government funding and contract
management 299
Steven Rathgeb Smith
Grant 303
Janine Lee, David Miller and
Stephen Sherman
Grassroots INGOs 307
Susan Appe
Growth strategies 309
David Gras and Gavin Williamson
Housing organizations 313
Rachel G. Bratt
Human service organizations 316
Bowen McBeath and
Michael J. Austin
Hybrid organizations 320
Wenjue Knutsen
Identity-based philanthropy 324
Noah D. Drezner
Impact investing 326
Wenjue Knutsen
Income portfolio analysis 329
Hanjin Mao and Lindsey McDougle
Industry analysis 331
Kevin P. Kearns
Innovation in nonprofit organizations 334
Kristina Jaskyte
Institutional isomorphism 338
Nadeen Makhlouf
Intermediate sanctions 340
Bok Gyo Jeong
Internal Revenue Service 343
David A. Bell
International aid 346
David A. Bell
Investment policy statement 349
Matthew Rice
Journals, periodicals, and
associations 353
Wenjiun Wang and Kevin P. Kearns
Leadership 359
Kevin P. Kearns
Leadership succession 363
Amanda J. Stewart and
Ryne A. Crout Jones
LGBTQ+ philanthropy 366
Elizabeth J. Dale
Lifecycles of nonprofit organizations 369
Rikki Abzug
Limited life foundations 372
Lynda Mansson
Major donors 375
Beth Breeze
Managerialism 378
Kevin P. Kearns
Marketing 381
Walter Wymer
Membership associations 383
Kevin P. Kearns
Mental health organizations 386
Alicia C. Bunger and
Thomas K. Gregoire
Mergers and acquisitions 389
Theresa Ricke-Kiely
Microfinance 393
Cécile Godfroid, Marek Hudon
and Marc Labie
Millennial generation’s civic
engagement 395
Young-joo Lee
Mission and economics 398
Richard S. Steinberg
Mission statement 401
Kevin P. Kearns
Motivation: Paid staff 403
Jed DeVaro
Motivation: Volunteers 406
Arthur A. Stukas, Mark Snyder
and E. Gil Clary
Multisite nonprofit organizations 408
Seth J. Meyer
Nascent organizations 411
Fredrik O. Andersson
Nongovernmental organizations 412
Paloma Raggo
Nonprofit sector 416
Peter Frumkin and Mark A. Hager
Operating foundations 420
Khrista McCarden
Operating reserves 422
Thad D. Calabrese
Payout requirement 425
Richard C. Sansing
Performance management 427
David A. Campbell and
Kristina T. Marty
Philanthropy: Definition and history 432
Michael Moody
Place-based philanthropy 435
Susan D. Phillips
Planned giving 439
Russell N. James III
Politics and philanthropy 442
David Callahan
Theory 445
Tracey M. Coule
Private foundations 448
Michael Moody
Private inurement prohibition 452
Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer
Professionalism 455
Kevin P. Kearns
Program evaluation 458
Lehn M. Benjamin, Dana R. H. Doan,
Alnoor Ebrahim
and Mary Kay Gugerty
Program-related investments 462
Heng Qu
Project management 464
Nicholas J. Chakos
Public charity 468
Penina K. Lieber
Public policy and nonprofit
organizations 472
Shannon K. Vaughan and
Shelly Arsneault
Public relations 474
Richard D. Waters
Public trust in nonprofit organizations 476
Jurgen Willems
Recruitment and retention 479
Kunle Akingbola
Refugee services 483
Lisa S. Alfredson
Regulation of nonprofit organizations 486
Putnam Barber
Resilience management 492
Dennis R. Young
Restricted / unrestricted funds 495
ChiaKo Hung, Arjen de Wit and
Pamala Wiepking
Retrenchment strategies 498
Yuan (Daniel) Cheng and
Shuyi Deng
Revenue diversification 501
Heng Qu
Risk management 505
Grace L. Chikoto-Schultz
Sarbanes-Oxley Act 509
Sarah A. Garven
Self-help groups 511
Melanie Boyce
Self-regulation 513
Angela L. Bies
Service portfolio analysis 517
Kevin P. Kearns
Settlement house 520
T. Laine Scales
Sexual harassment 522
Erynn E. Beaton and
Elizabeth J. Dale
Social capital 525
Tristan Claridge
Social change and nonprofit
organizations 528
Theresa Anasti
Social economy 532
Laurie Mook
Social enterprise 534
Wenjue Knutsen
Social entrepreneurship 537
Rasheda L. Weaver
Social responsibility of nonprofit
organizations 540
Shawn Pope
Social return on investment 543
Kate Cooney
Stakeholder management 547
Kevin P. Kearns
Strategic analysis: SWOT 550
Kevin P. Kearns
Strategic human resource
management 552
Kunle Akingbola
Strategic planning 558
David La Piana
Supporting organizations 563
Penina K. Lieber
Tax policy: Federal 567
Joseph Cordes
Tax policy: State and local 571
Joseph Cordes
Technology and social media 574
Chao Guo and John McNutt
Transparency 578
Erica E. Harris
Triple bottom line 581
Dragana Djukic-Min, Allison R. Russell
and Elizabeth A. M. Searing
Unfair competition 585
Alexander C. Campbell
United Way 587
Laurie E. Paarlberg and Jin Ai
Unrelated business income 590
Alexander C. Campbell
Venture philanthropy 592
Tamaki Onishi and
Arisa Miyakozawa
Voluntarism 595
Allison R. Russell and
Femida Handy
Volunteer management 600
Christopher J. Einolf
Wage equity within and across
sectors 604
David A. Macpherson and
Barry T. Hirsch
Watchdog organizations 609
Margaret F. Sloan and
Kennedy M. Musyoka
Wealth inequality 611
Claire Le Barbenchon and
Lisa A. Keister
Index 617
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