Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research


Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research

Multi-Item Scales Crossing Disciplines and Contexts

9781788115261 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Nicole Coviello, Betty and Peter Sims Professor of Entrepreneurship and Professor of Marketing, Lazaridis School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada and the late Helena Yli-Renko, formerly Orfalea Director''s Chair in Entrepreneurship, Lloyd Greif Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, US
Publication Date: 2017 ISBN: 978 1 78811 526 1 Extent: 656 pp
The Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research is a user-friendly collection of multi-item measures developed and used in the research of international entrepreneurship and important areas related to it: international business, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategy, and innovation.

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The Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research is a user-friendly collection of multi-item measures developed and used in the research of international entrepreneurship and important areas related to it: international business, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategy, and innovation.

Editors Nicole Coviello and Helena Yli-Renko carefully compiled 212 scales from over 820 possible measures using rigorous selection criteria. The scales fall into eight distinct categories:

• Individual-level influences
• Firm and team-level influences
• External environmental influences
• Relationships, networks, and social capital
• Organizational learning
• Capabilities
• Orientation and strategy
• Performance and innovation outcomes

For each scale, the book includes the following information to enable ease of use: summary, construct definition, description, source, development or adaptation procedures, sample, validity, scores, references, and scale items. This standout Handbook not only builds a compelling case for a more rigorous approach to research methods in international entrepreneurship research, but also explores the best practices in development, adaptation, use, and reporting of multi-item measures.

Academic researchers in international entrepreneurship, international business, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategy, and/or innovation will find this reference tool a welcome addition to their survey research practices. Policy-makers conducting research in these areas will also appreciate this book.
Critical Acclaim
‘Developing valid and reliable measures is a minefield for most doctoral students and even experienced and accomplished scholars. The top-tier publication graveyard is littered with the ghosts of manuscripts and their authors tripped by poor construct measures. Coviello and Yli-Renko provide a “toolkit” of conceptually and empirically validated measures, their sources and from across a spectrum of disciplines and contexts to help you clear the minefield.’
– Kwaku Atuahene-Gima, Nobel International Business School, Ghana

‘This handbook is novel. It brings together in a single volume, numerous measures (multi-item scales) on topics which scholars of international entrepreneurship will find very handy. Thus, it contributes in two ways – improved use of multi-item measures in quantitative research and enhanced focus towards interface disciplines. This volume is a must-have in every department where students (postgraduate and doctoral) conduct any form of research in the areas of international entrepreneurship, international business and entrepreneurship.’
– Journal of Entrepreneurship
Contributors: Y. (Ken) Chen, N. Coviello, J. Kerr, H. Mehrabi, G. Tanguay, H. Yli-Renko



Affect: Negative Affect
Affect: Positive Affect
Effectiveness in Acquiring New Information
Effectiveness in Acquiring New Resources
Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy
Opportunity Recognition Ability
Passion for Developing
Passion for Founding
Passion for Inventing
Perceived Passion
Perception of Preparedness
Personal Cultural Orientation
Prior Knowledge of Customer Problems
Prior Knowledge of Markets
Prior Knowledge of Technology
Prior Knowledge of Ways to Serve Markets
Social Competence: Expressiveness
Social Competence: Ingratiation
Social Competence: Self-Promotion
Social Competence: Social Adaptability
Social Competence: Social Perception

Cross-Functional Integration
Effectuation vs. Causation: Acknowledge the Unexpected vs. Overcome the Unexpected
Effectuation vs. Causation: Affordable Loss vs. Expected Returns
Effectuation vs. Causation: Means-Driven vs. Goal-Driven
Effectuation vs. Causation: Partnerships vs. Competitive Market Analysis
Exposure to Foreign Market Particularities
Firm Resources
Innovation Ambidexterity
Knowledge Intensity
Leadership Style: Consideration
Leadership Style: Participation
Operational Flexibilities: Cognitive Flexibility
Operational Flexibilities: Political Flexibility
Operational Flexibilities: Relational Flexibility
Operational Flexibilities: Structural Flexibility
Organizational Culture: Adhocracy
Organizational Culture: Bureaucracy
Organizational Culture: Clan
Organizational Culture: Market
Organizational Innovativeness
Resource Flexibility
Resources Available to the Export Venture
Team Creativity
Technological Distinctiveness
Technology Scanning

Competitive Intensity
Competitive Turbulence
Environmental Competitiveness
Environmental Dynamism
Institutional Impediments
Institutional Influences: Contract Enforcement
Institutional Influences: Corruption
Institutional Influences: Cost of Business Closing
Institutional Influences: Costs of Trade
Institutional Influences: Ease of Hiring
Institutional Influences: Ease of Starting a Business
Institutional Influences: Economic Situation
Institutional Influences: Infrastructure
Institutional Influences: Need
Institutional Influences: Social Norms
Institutional Influences: Taxes
Market Dynamism
Market Turbulence
Technological Turbulence

Behavioural Uncertainty
Communication Intensity
Cooperative Competency
Cross-Functional Relationship Conflict
Cross-Functional Task Conflict
Cross-Functional Trust
Customer Participation
Customer Reputation
Interaction with Foreign Market Players
Managerial Network: Strength of Expressive Ties
Managerial Network: Strength of Instrumental Ties
New Venture’s Commitment to Supplier
New Venture’s Power over Supplier
Partner Fit
Partner Opportunism
Procedural Justice
Relationship-Specific Investment
Satisfaction (with Customer)
Social Capital: Customer Network Ties
Social Capital: Identification-Based Trust
Social Capital: Relationship Quality
Social Capital: Shared Values
Social Capital: Social Interaction (v1)
Social Capital: Social Interaction (v2)
Social Ties: Direct Tie
Social Ties: Indirect Tie
Social Ties: Political Ties
Strength of Ties
Tie Strength
Tie Strength: Knowledge Redundancy
Tie Strength: Relational Embeddedness
Willingness of Support Firms to Cooperate

Alliance Learning Process
Customer Knowledge Development
Exploitative Market Learning
Exploratory Market Learning
Foreign Market Knowledge
Knowledge Acquisition
Knowledge Integration
Learning Effectiveness
Learning Efficiency
Learning Effort: Domestic
Learning Effort: International
Market Information Acquisition
Market Information Use
New Process Creativity
New Product Creativity
Perceived Business Familiarity
Perceived Institutional Familiarity
Prior Foreign Market Analysis
Process-Based Creativity
Process Information Acquisition
Product Information Acquisition
Resource-Based Learning Capacity
Speed of Technological Learning
Team Information Exchange
Team-Level Experiential Knowledge

Absorptive Capacity
Bilateral Communication Capabilities
Bilateral Investment Capabilities
Competence Exploitation
Competence Exploration
Coordination Flexibility
Export Capabilities
Founding Team Marketing Capabilities
Founding Team Market-Linking Capabilities
Founding Team Service Design Capabilities
Global Technological Competence
Incremental Innovation Capability
Information and Communication Technology Capability
International Business Competence
Knowledge Capability Upgrading
Market Launch Capability
Marketing Capabilities: Distribution Capability
Marketing Capabilities (for Exporting): Architectural
Marketing Capabilities (for Exporting): Specialized
Marketing Capabilities: Marketing Communication Capability
Marketing Capabilities: Pricing Capability
Marketing Capabilities: Product Development Capability
Network Capabilities
Network Capability Upgrading
Networking Capability
Overseas Market-Related Exploitative Capabilities
Overseas Market-Related Explorative Capabilities
Product Development Exploitative Capabilities
Product Development Explorative Capabilities
Sensing Capability

Attitude to International Markets
Competitive Strategy in Export Markets
Customer Orientation: Emerging Customers
Customer Orientation: Mainstream Customers
Entrepreneurial Management
Entrepreneurial Strategic Posture (aka Entrepreneurial Orientation)
Export Entrepreneurial-Oriented Behavior
Export Market Orientation
Export Marketing Strategy: Distribution Adaptation
Export Marketing Strategy: Pricing Adaptation
Export Marketing Strategy: Product Adaptation
Export Marketing Strategy: Promotion Adaptation
Growth by Acquisition
Growth through Partnership
International Entrepreneurial Culture
International Entrepreneurial Orientation
International Entrepreneurial Proclivity: Innovativeness
International Entrepreneurial Proclivity: Proactiveness
International Entrepreneurial Proclivity: Risk Taking
Learning Orientation
Leveraging Foreign Distributor Competences
Market Orientation (v1)
Market Orientation (v2)
Marketing Exploitation Strategies
Marketing Exploration Strategies
Quality Focus
Technological Orientation
Unique Products Development

Competitiveness during Firm Growth Stage
Disruptive Innovation
Exploitative Innovation
Exploratory Innovation
Export Venture Performance
Evaluation of Partner Performance
Firm Performance (Perceived)
Innovation Performance: Incremental
Innovation Performance: Radical
Innovation Radicalness
Innovation Type
New Product Cost Efficiency
New Product Development Speed
New Product Differentiation
New Product Meaningfulness
New Product Novelty
New Product Performance
Outcome-Based Creativity
Performance: Financial
Radical Innovation


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