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Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance

Edited by Stephen Elstub, Senior Lecturer in British Politics, Department of Politics, Newcastle University and Oliver Escobar, Senior Lecturer in Public Policy, School of Social and Political Science, University of Edinburgh, UK
Democratic innovations are proliferating in politics, governance, policy, and public administration. These new processes of public participation are reimagining the relationship between citizens and institutions. This Handbook advances understanding of democratic innovations, in theory and practice, by critically reviewing their importance throughout the world. The overarching themes are a focus on citizens and their relationship to these innovations, and the resulting effects on political equality. The Handbook therefore offers a definitive overview of existing research on democratic innovations, while also setting the agenda for future research and practice.
Extent: c 624 pp
Hardback Price: $330.00 Web: $297.00
Publication Date: 2019
ISBN: 978 1 78643 385 5
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  • Politics and Public Policy
  • Public Policy
  • Constitutions
Democracies are currently undergoing a period of both challenge and renewal. Democratic innovations are proliferating in politics, governance, policy, and public administration. This Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance advances understanding of democratic innovations by critically reviewing their importance throughout the world. The overarching themes are a focus on citizens and their relationship to these innovations, and the resulting effects on political equality and policy impact.

The Handbook covers different types of democratic innovations; their potential to combat current problems with democracy; the various actors involved; their use in different areas of policy and governance; their application in different parts of the world; and the methods used to research them. Contributors therefore offer a definitive overview of existing research on democratic innovations, while also setting the agenda for future research and practice.

Featuring a critical combination of theoretical, empirical and methodological work on democratic innovations, this insightful Handbook balances depth, originality and accessibility to make it an ideal research companion for scholars and students of democratic governance alike. Public administrators and participation practitioners will also benefit from its guidance on citizen engagement processes.
‘Stephen Elstub and Oliver Escobar have assembled an impressive lineup of established and emerging scholars to tell you just about everything you need to know about the state of democratic innovation, its importance, and its future prospects. An essential guide to this crucial and growing field.’
– John S. Dryzek, University of Canberra, Australia

‘Around the world democracies are undergoing something of a renewal resulting in a proliferation of democratic innovations across the globe, Elstub and Escobar's Handbook is a timely and important contribution to the field across theory and practice. It will be an invaluable resource for researchers, practitioners, civil society activists and governments.’
– Jane Suiter, Dublin City University, Ireland

‘At a time when our legacy institutions of representative democracy badly need supplementing so that the democratic project will continue to move forward, this volume impressively advances and consolidates the rapidly developing field of democratic innovations.’
– Mark E. Warren, University of British Columbia, Canada

‘Elstub and Escobar have put together a rich resource for anyone wanting to better understand a wide variety of democratic innovations. Global in scope, this Handbook is a must-read and will surely prompt even more ideas for how democracy can be done differently.’
– Claudia Chwalisz, author of The People’s Verdict and The Populist Signal

‘Democratic reform requires a handbook because innovation involves trial and error. This book will help civic organizations, public officials, and scholars advance the most promising new ideas for revitalizing democracy. Its authors draw on hundreds of studies from around the world to show what works and what doesn't. The rest is up to us.’
– John Gastil, Pennsylvania State University, US
Contributors: G. Allegretti, J. Alver, E. Andersson, G. Baiocchi, B. Bedsted, S. Beste, L. Bherer, W. Blijleven, A. Bua, S. Bussu, E. Challies, J. Corbett, S.R. Davies, R. Dean, S. Elstub, O. Escobar, M. Evans, I. Ferreira, M. Flinders, E. Ganuza, B. Geißel, K. Grönlund, C. Harris, C.M. Hendriks, F. Hendriks, K. Herne, N.W. Jager, M.C. Jaramillo, M. Jäske, L. Kallio, C.F. Karpowitz, C.W. Lee, R. Levy, R. Lightbody, N. Mikami, J. Newig, S. Niemeyer, I. O’Flynn, L.J. Parry, T. Peixoto, T. Pogrebinschi, G. Pomatto, C. Raphael, M. Rask, J. Roberts, M. Ross, H. Russon Gilman, M. Ryan, M. Setälä, G. Smith, P. Spada, J. Steiner, G. Stoker, J. Talpin, A. Thompson, N. Thompson, M. van Hulst, A. Weale, M. Wood, D. Wyss



Contents

Introduction to the Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance :
the field of democratic innovation 1
Oliver Escobar and Stephen Elstub

SECTION I TYPES OF DEMOCRATIC INNOVATION
1. Defining and typologising democratic innovations 11
Stephen Elstub and Oliver Escobar
2. Democratic innovations and theories of democracy 32
Ian O’Flynn
3. Mini-publics: design choices and legitimacy 45
Clodagh Harris
4. Collaborative governance: between invited and invented spaces 60
Sonia Bussu
5. The long journey of participatory budgeting 77
Ernesto Ganuza and Gianpaolo Baiocchi
6. Referendums and citizens’ initiatives 90
Maija Jäske and Maija Setälä
7. Digital participation 105
Hollie Russon Gilman and Tiago Carneiro Peixoto

SECTION II DEMOCRATIC INNOVATIONS AND
THE DEMOCRATIC MALAISE
8. Does political trust matter? 120
Gerry Stoker and Mark Evans
9. Accountability and democratic innovations 135
Albert Weale
10. Anti-politics and democratic innovation 148
Matthew Flinders, Matthew Wood and Jack Corbett
11. The impact of democratic innovations on citizens’ efficacy 161
Paolo Spada

SECTION III ACTORS IN DEMOCRATIC INNOVATION
12. Facilitators: the micropolitics of public participation and deliberation 178
Oliver Escobar
13. Consultants: the emerging participation industry 196
Laurence Bherer and Caroline W. Lee
14. Public servants in innovative democratic governance 209
Wieke Blijleven, Merlijn van Hulst and Frank Hendriks
15. Experts: the politics of evidence and expertise in democratic innovation 225
Ruth Lightbody and Jennifer J. Roberts
16. Advocates: interest groups, civil society organisations and democratic innovation 241
Carolyn M. Hendriks
17. The role of elected representatives in democratic innovations 255
Nivek Thompson
18. Journalists: the role of the media in democratic innovation 269
Gianfranco Pomatto

SECTION IV DEMOCRATIC INNOVATIONS IN POLICY
AND GOVERNANCE
19. Democratic innovations and the policy process 282
Adrian Bua
20. Democratic innovation in science and technology 297
Sarah R. Davies
21. Democratic innovation in social policy 310
Rikki Dean
22. Democratic innovation and environmental governance 324
Jens Newig, Edward Challies and Nicolas W. Jager
23. Democratic innovation in constitutional reform 339
Ron Levy
24. Democratic innovation in transnational and global governance 354
Mikko Rask, Bjørn Bedsted, Edward Andersson and Liisa Kallio

SECTION V DEMOCRATIC INNOVATIONS AROUND THE WORLD
25. Democratic innovations in North America 371
Christopher F. Karpowitz and Chad Raphael
26. Democratic innovations in Latin America 389
Thamy Pogrebinschi and Melisa Ross
27. Democratic innovations in Europe 404
Brigitte Geissel
28. Trends in democratic innovation in Asia 421
Naoyuki Mikami
29. Democratic innovation in Australasia 435
Lucy Parry, Jane Alver and Nivek Thompson
30. Local democratic innovations in Africa 449
Isabel Ferreira and Giovanni Allegretti

SECTION VI RESEARCH METHODS FOR THE STUDY OF
DEMOCRATIC INNOVATIONS
31. Quantitative methods in democratic innovation research 472
Simon Beste and Dominik Wyss
32. Qualitative approaches to democratic innovations 486
Julien Talpin
33. Mixed methods research in democratic innovation 501
Oliver Escobar and Andrew Thompson
34. Using experiments to study democratic innovations 515
Kimmo Grönlund and Kaisa Herne
35. From discourse quality index to deliberative transformative moments 527
Maria Clara Jaramillo and Jürg Steiner
36. Analysing deliberative transformation : a multi-level approach incorporating
Q methodology 540
Simon Niemeyer
37. Comparative approaches to the study of democratic innovation 558
Matt Ryan

CONCLUDING CHAPTER
38. Reflections on the theory and practice of democratic innovations 572
Graham Smith

Index 583