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International Human Rights Institutions and Enforcement

Edited by Fausto Pocar, Professor Emeritus of International Law, University of Milan, Italy and Judge, ICTY, ICTR and ICJ
This timely two-volume set collects together the most influential legal scholarship on the enforcement of human rights at institutional level, both regional and international. The first volume includes articles that discuss charter-based and reporting monitoring procedures as well as the role of high commissioners and treaty bodies. The articles in the second volume focus on the movement towards establishing quasi-judicial procedures, and the judicial enforcement of human rights and interim measures, concluding with a thoughtful consideration of the potential for universal judicial enforcement – a world court of human rights. Together with an original introduction by the editor, this insightful collection will be an essential research resource for those studying, working or teaching in this important field.
Two volume set
Extent: 1,856 pp
Hardback Price: $980.00 Web: $882.00
Publication Date: April 2019
ISBN: 978 1 78195 180 4
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  • Law - Academic
  • Human Rights
  • Politics and Public Policy
  • Human Rights
  • International Relations
This timely two-volume set collects together the most influential legal scholarship on the enforcement of human rights at institutional level, both regional and international. The first volume includes articles that discuss charter-based and reporting monitoring procedures as well as the role of high commissioners and treaty bodies. The articles in the second volume focus on the movement towards establishing quasi-judicial procedures, and the judicial enforcement of human rights and interim measures, concluding with a thoughtful consideration of the potential for universal judicial enforcement – a world court of human rights. Together with an original introduction by the editor, this insightful collection will be an essential research resource for those studying, working or teaching in this important field.
‘This collection, curated by eminent jurist Fausto Pocar, is destined to become an indispensable resource for a broad audience. Those newly exposed to the subject of human rights will find an elegant and comprehensive account of core elements of enforcement, as well as stimulating critiques of evolving measures of enforcement and implementation. Scholars and practitioners already steeped in the subject will treasure the collection's sophisticated assessments, authored by leading experts across multiple regions.’
– Diane Orentlicher, American University, Washington College of Law, US

‘Today, the biggest obstacle to the enjoyment of all human rights by all members of the human family is no longer the absence of universal consensus as to the rights and freedoms to be protected, but the absence of their effective enforcement in practice. Therefore, the present collection - edited by the eminent professor and international judge Fausto Pocar - is a very timely and important endeavour, providing both academics and practitioners with a comprehensive overview of the evolution and current state of the international human rights enforcement system, and with an outlook as to possible ways forward in the future.’
– Nils Melzer, United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, Geneva, Switzerland
62 articles, dating from 1979 to 2014
Contributors include: P. Alston, G.L. Burci, A. Cassese, R. Freedman, L.R. Helfer, H.H. Koh, P. Mahoney, M. Nowak, M. Scheinin, M.G. Schmidt
Content:

Acknowledgements

Introduction Fausto Pocar
1. Thomas Buergenthal (2006), ‘The Evolving International Human Rights System’, American Journal of International Law, 100 (4), October, 783–807

2. Harold Hongju Koh (1999), ’How is International Human Rights Law Enforced?’, Indiana Law Journal, 74 (4), Fall, 1397–417

3. Douglas Donoho (2006), ‘Human Rights Enforcement in the Twenty-First Century’, Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, 35 (1), 1–52

4. Pammela Quinn Saunders (2012), ‘The Integrated Enforcement of Human Rights’, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 45 (1), Fall, 97–174

5. Andrew Drzemczewski (2001), ‘The Prevention of Human Rights Violations: Monitoring Mechanisms of the Council of Europe’, in Linos-Alexander Sicilianos and Christiane Bourloyannis-Vrailas (eds), The Prevention of Human Rights Violation: Contribution on the Occasion of the Twentieth Anniversary of the Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights (MFHR), Part II, Chapter 4, The Hague, the Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 139–77

6. W. Michael Reisman (1995), ‘Practical Matters for Consideration in the Establishment of a Regional Human Rights Mechanism: Lessons from the Inter-American System’, Saint Louis-Warsaw Transatlantic Law Journal, 1995, 89–101
7. Andrea Durbach, Catherine Renshaw and Andrew Byrnes (2009), ‘A Tongue but No Teeth? The Emergence of a Regional Human Rights Mechanism in the Asia Pacific Region’, Sydney Law Review, 31 (2), June, 211–38

PART II THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER BASED MONITORING PROCEDURES: FROM THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION TO THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
8. Paul Gordon Lauren (2007), ‘”To Preserve and Build on its Achievements and to Redress its Shortcomings”: The Journey from the Commission on Human Rights to the Human Rights Council’, Human Rights Quarterly, 29 (2), May, 307–45

9. Françoise J. Hampson (2007), ‘An Overview of the Reform of the UN Human Rights Machinery’, Human Rights Law Review: Special Issue, 7 (1), 7–27

10. Gian Luca Burci (2005), ‘The United Nations Human Rights Council’, Italian Yearbook of International Law, 15 (1), 25–42

11. Gareth Sweeney and Yuri Saito (2009), ‘An NGO Assessment of the New Mechanism of the UN Human Rights Council’, Human Rights Law Review, 9 (2), 203–23

12. Rosa Freedman (2013), ‘The United Nations Human Rights Council: More of the Same?’, Wisconsin International Law Journal, 31 (2), 208–51

PART III THE ENFORCEMENT ROLE OF HIGH COMMISSIONERS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
13. Harold Hongju Koh (2003–2004), ‘A Job Description for the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights’, Columbia Human Rights Law Review, Symposium on the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: The First Ten Years of the Office, and the Next, 35 (3), Summer, 493–503

14. Lauri Sivonen (2012), ‘The Commissioner for Human Rights’, in Gauthier de Beco (ed.), Human Rights Monitoring Mechanisms of the Council of Europe, Chapter 1, Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 17–42

PART IV THE MONITORING ROLE OF THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES BODIES THROUGH REPORTING PROCEDURES [389 pp]
15. Eckart Klein (1998), ‘The Reporting System under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’, in The Monitoring System of Human Rights Treaty Obligations: Colloquium Potsdam 22./23. November 1996, Berlin, Germany: Berlin Verlag Arno Spitz GmbH, 17–29

16. Manfred Nowak (1980), ‘The Effectiveness of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’, Human Rights Law Journal, 1 (1), 136–70

17. Ineke Boerefijn (1995), ‘Towards a Strong System of Supervision: The Human Rights Committee’s Role in Reforming the Reporting Procedure under Article 40 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly, 17 (4), November, 766–93

18. Torkel Opsahl (1989), ‘The General Comments of the Human Rights Committee’, in Jürgen Jekewitz, Karl Heinz Kein, Jörg Detlef Kühne, Hans Petersmann and Rüdiger Wolfrum (eds), Des Menschen Recht zwischen Freiheit und Verantwortung: Festschrift für Karl Josef Partsch zum 75. Geburtstag, Berlin, Germany: Duncker and Humblot, 273–86

19. Philip Alston (1979), ‘The United Nations’ Specialized Agencies and Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 18 (1), 79–118

20. Christophe Golay, Claire Mahon and Ioana Cismas (2011), ‘The Impact of the UN Special Procedures on the Development and Implementation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’, International Journal of Human Rights: Special Issue, 15 (2), 299–318

21. Peter Burns and Obiora Okafor (1998), ‘The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment or How it is Still Better to Light a Candle than to Curse the Darkness’, Otago Law Review, 9 (2), 399–432

22. Elina Steinerte (2013), ‘The Changing Nature of the Relationship between the United Nations Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and National Preventive Mechanisms: In Search for Equilibrium’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 31 (2), 132–58

23. Hanna Beate Schöpp-Schilling (2007), ‘Treaty Body Reform: The Case of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women’, Human Rights Law Review: Special Issue, 7 (1), 201–24

24. William F. Felice (2002), ‘The UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: Race, and Economic and Social Human Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly, 24 (1), February, 205–36

25. Jaap E. Doek (2003), ‘The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: Some Observations on the Monitoring and the Social Context of its Implementation’, University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy, 14 (2), Spring, 125–36

26. Carla Edelenbos (2009), ‘Committee on Migrant Workers and Implementation of the ICRMW’, in Ryszard Cholewinski, Paul de Guchteneire and Antoine Pécoud (eds), Migration and Human Rights: The United Nations Convention on Migrant Workers’ Rights, Chapter 4, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press and Paris, France: UNESCO, 100–21

27. Michael O’Flaherty and Claire O’Brien (2007), ‘Reform of the UN Human Rights Treaty Monitoring Bodies: A Critique of the Concept Paper on the High Commissioner’s Proposal for a Unified Standing Treaty Body’, Human Rights Law Review: Special Issue, 7 (1), 141–72

28. Joanne Pedone and Andrew R. Kloster (2012–2013), ‘New Proposals for Human Rights Treaty Body Reform’, Journal of Transnational Law and Policy, 22, 29–84

PART V THE MONITORING ROLE OF HUMAN RIGHTS TREATY BODIES WITHIN REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
29. Antonio Cassese (1989), ‘A New Approach to Human Rights: The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture’, American Journal of International Law, 83 (1), 128–53

30. Jim Murdoch (1994), ‘The Work of the Council of Europe’s Torture Committee’, European Journal of International Law, Symposium: The European Torture Committee after Five Years: An Assessment, 5 (2), 220–48

31. Yolanda Román González (2009), ‘The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture’, in Felipe Gómez Isa and Koen de Feyter (eds), International Human Rights Law in a Global Context, Part IV, Bilbao, Spain: University of Deusto, 745–73

32. Robert Dunbar (2012), ‘The Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (The CECL)’, in Gauthier de Beco (ed.), Human Rights Monitoring Mechanisms of the Council of Europe, Chapter 6, Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 150–70

Index




Volume II

Contents

Acknowledgements

Introduction An introduction to both volumes by the editor appears in Volume I

PART I THE INCREASING MOVEMENT TOWARDS ESTABLISHING TREATY BODIES’ QUASI-JUDICIAL PROCEDURES
1. P.R. Ghandhi (1986), ‘The Human Rights Committee and the Right of Individual Communication’, British Year Book of International Law, 57 (1), 201–51

2. Markus G. Schmidt (1992), ‘Individual Human Rights Complaints Procedures Based on United Nations Treaties and the Need for Reform’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 41 (3), July, 645–59

3. Diane A. Desierto and Colin E. Gillespie (2013), ‘Evolutive Interpretation and Subsequent Practice: Interpretive Communities and Processes in the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR’, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 73, 549–89

4. Suzanne Egan (2014), ‘The New Complaints Mechanism for the Convention on the Rights of the Child: A Mini Step forward for Children?’, International Journal of Children’s Rights, 22 (1), 205–25

5. Alexandra R. Harrington (2012), ‘Don’t Mind the Gap: The Rise of Individual Complaint Mechanisms within International Human Rights Treaties’, Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 22 (2), Winter, 153–82

6. Robin R. Churchill and Urfan Khaliq (2004), ‘The Collective Complaints System of the European Social Charter: An Effective Mechanism for Ensuring Compliance with Economic and Social Rights?’, European Journal of International Law, 15 (3), 417–56

7. Rachel Murray and Elizabeth Mottershaw (2014), ‘Mechanisms for the Implementation of Decisions of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly, 36 (2), May, 349–72


PART II THE JUDICIAL ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL
A. Europe
8. Paul Mahoney (2003), ‘Separation of Powers in the Council of Europe: The Status of the European Court of Human Rights vis-à-vis the Authorities of the Council of Europe’, Human Rights Law Journal, 24 (5–8), 152–61

9. Luzius Wildhaber (2006), ‘The European Court of Human Rights: The Past, The Present, The Future’, American University International Law Review, 22 (4), 521–38

10. Tilmann Laubner (2004), ‘Relieving the Court of its Success? Protocol No. 14 to the European Convention of Human Rights’, German Yearbook of International Law, 47, 691–721

11. Christian Tomuschat (2009), ‘The European Court of Human Rights Overwhelmed by Applications: Problems and Possible Solutions’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum and Ulrike Deutsch (eds), The European Court of Human Rights Overwhelmed by Applications: Problems and Possible Solutions, Chapter 1, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1–18

12. Markus Fyrnys (2011), ‘Expanding Competences by Judicial Lawmaking: The Pilot Judgment Procedure of the European Court of Human Rights’, German Law Journal, 12 (5), 1231–59

13. Michael O’Boyle (2011), ‘The Future of the European Court of Human Rights’, German Law Journal, 12 (10), 1862–77

14. Marjorie Beulay (2013), ‘The Action of Legal Persons in the European System of Human Rights Protection – Collective or Individual Interest?’, Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals, 12 (3), January, 321–41

B. Americas
15. Cecilia Medina (1990), ‘The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Reflections on a Joint Venture’, Human Rights Quarterly, 12 (4), November, 439–64

16. Felipe González (2009), ‘The Experience of the Inter-American Human Rights System’, Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 40 (1), 103–25

17. Jan Schneider (2012), ‘Implementation of Judgments: Should Supervision Be Unlinked from the General Assembly of the Organization of American States?’, Inter-American and European Human Rights Journal, 5 (1–2), 197–215 [19]

18. Ariel Dulitzky (2011), ‘The Inter-American Human Rights System Fifty Years Later: Time for Changes’, Quebec Journal of International Law: Special Edition, September, 127–64

C. Africa
19. Laurence Burgorgue-Larsen (2012), ‘Interpreting the European Convention: What Can the African Human Rights System Learn from the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights on the Interpretation of the European Convention?’, Inter-American and European Human Rights Journal, 5 (1–2), 90–123

20. Makau Mutua (1999), ‘The African Human Rights Court: A Two-Legged Stool?’, Human Rights Quarterly, 21 (2), May, 342–63

21. Nsongurua J. Udombana (2003), ‘An African Human Rights Court and an African Union Court: A Needful Duality or a Needless Duplication?’, Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 28 (3), 811–70

22. Carolyn Scanlon Martorana (2008), ‘The New African Union: Will it Promote Enforcement of the Decisions of the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights?’, George Washington International Law Review, 40 (2), 583–610

23. Lucyline Nkatha Murungi and Jacqui Gallinetti (2010), ‘The Role of Sub-Regional Courts in the African Human Rights System’, Sur – International Journal on Human Rights, 7 (13), December–January, 119–43

24. Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer and Jacqueline R. McAllister (2013), ‘A New International Human Rights Court for West Africa: The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice’, American Journal of International Law, 107 (4), October, 737–79

PART III INTERIM MEASURES AS A MEANS FOR ENFORCING HUMAN RIGHTS
25. Laurence Burgorgue-Larsen (2009), ‘Interim Measures in the European Convention System of Protection of Human Rights’, Inter-American and European Human Rights Journal, 2 (1), 99–118

26. Clara Burbano Herrera and Yves Haeck (2010), ‘Letting States off the Hook? The Paradox of the Legal Consequences Following State Non-Compliance with Provisional Measures in the Inter-American and European Human Rights Systems’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 28 (3), September, 332–60

27. Helen Keller and Cedric Marti (2013), ‘Interim Relief Compared: Use of Interim Measures by the UN Human Rights Committee and the European Court of Human Rights’, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 73 , 325–72

PART IV A UNIVERSAL JUDICIAL ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS?
28. Manfred Nowak (2007), ‘The Need for a World Court of Human Rights’, Human Rights Law Review, 7 (1), 251–9

29. Martin Scheinin (2009), ‘Towards a World Court of Human Rights’, Research Report within the Framework of the Swiss Initiative to Commemorate the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, June, 1–63

30. Philip Alston (2014), ‘Against a World Court for Human Rights’, Ethics and International Affairs, 28 (2), July, 197–212

Index