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Law on the Use of Force and Armed Conflict

Edited by Robert Cryer, Professor of International and Criminal Law, University of Birmingham, UK and Christian Henderson, Professor of International Law, University of Sussex, UK
This comprehensive four-volume compilation presents seminal works from leading authors on the use of force and armed conflict, beginning with detailed analysis of the prohibition of forcible intervention, including interpretation of the rule and notable exceptions to it. In addition, the collection offers a wealth of important material on the law of armed conflict in connection with its foundations, applicability, sources, substance, practical application, and implementation. Together with an original introduction by the editors, the collection provides a thorough grounding in the law relating to the initial use of force and subsequent armed conflict, and is an essential source of reference for practitioners, academics and students alike.
Four volume set
Extent: 2,832 pp
Hardback Price: $1015.00 Web: $913.50
Publication Date: 2017
ISBN: 978 1 78347 488 2
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  • Law - Academic
  • Public International Law
  • Terrorism and Security Law
This comprehensive four-volume compilation presents seminal works from leading authors on the use of force and armed conflict, beginning with detailed analysis of the prohibition of forcible intervention, including interpretation of the rule and notable exceptions to it. In addition, the collection offers a wealth of important material on the law of armed conflict in connection with its foundations, applicability, sources, substance, practical application, and implementation. Together with an original introduction by the editors, the collection provides a thorough grounding in the law relating to the initial use of force and subsequent armed conflict, and is an essential source of reference for practitioners, academics and students alike.

‘Cryer and Henderson have assembled a superb collection of articles on the use of force and the law of armed conflict, one that intelligently and comprehensively explores all sides of the numerous controversies that characterise both areas of international law. Given the deluge of writing they had to choose from, that is a remarkable feat. Any international lawyer will want a copy of this collection in their university library and on their bookshelf.’
– Kevin Jon Heller, Australian National University, Australia and University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
83 articles, dating from 1929 to 2013
Contributors include: R. Baxter, D. Bowett, I. Brownlie, A. Cassese, T. Franck, H.-P. Gasser, C. Greenwood, T. Meron, O. Schachter, B. Simma
Contents:

Introduction Robert Cryer and Christian Henderson


PART I THE GENERAL PROHIBITION OF FORCIBLE INTERVENTION
1. Joachim von Elbe (1939), ‘The Evolution of the Concept of the Just War in International Law’, American Journal of International Law, 33 (4), October, 665–88

2. Sir John Fischer Williams (1933), ‘The Covenant of the League of Nations and War’, Cambridge Law Journal, V (1), March, 1–21

3. J.L. Brierly (1929), ‘Some Implications of the Pact of Paris’, British Year Book of International Law, 10, 208–10

4. Vaughan Lowe (1994), ‘The Principle of Non-Intervention: Use of Force’, in Colin Warbrick and Vaughan Lowe (eds), The United Nations and the Principles of International Law: Essays in Memory of Michael Akehurst, Chapter 4, London, UK and New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 66–84

5. Thomas M. Franck (1970), ‘Who Killed Article 2(4)? Or: Changing Norms Governing the Use of Force by States’, American Journal of International Law, 64 (5), October, 809–37

6. Louis Henkin (1971), ‘The Reports of the Death of Article 2(4) Are Greatly Exaggerated’, American Journal of International Law, 65 (3), July, 544–48
7. James A. Green (2011), ‘Questioning the Peremptory Status of the Prohibition of the Use of Force’, Michigan Journal of International Law, 32 (2), Winter, 215–57

8. Agatha Verdebout (2014), 'The Contemporary Discourse on the Use of Force in the Nineteenth Century: A Diachronic and Critical Analysis', Journal on the Use of Force and International Law, 1 (2), 223–46

9. Marco Roscini (2007), ‘Threats of Armed Force and Contemporary International Law’, Netherlands International Law Review, LIV (2), August, 229–77

PART II READINGS OF THE GENERAL PROHIBITION OF FORCIBLE INTERVENTION
10. W. Michael Reisman (1984), ‘Coercion and Self-Determination: Construing Charter Article 2(4)’, American Journal of International Law, 78 (3), July, 642–45

11. Oscar Schachter (1984), ‘The Legality of Pro-Democratic Invasion’, American Journal of International Law, 78 (3), July, 645–50

12. Louise Doswald-Beck (1985), ‘The Legal Validity of Military Intervention by Invitation of the Government’, British Year Book of International Law, LVI (1), 189–252

13. Christopher J. Le Mon (2003), ‘Unilateral Intervention by Invitation in Civil Wars: The Effective Control Test Tested’, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 35 (3), Spring, 741–93

14. John A. Perkins (1987), ‘The Right of Counterintervention’, Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, 17 (2), 171–227

15. Christian Henderson (2013), ‘The Provision of Arms and “Non-Lethal” Assistance to Governmental and Opposition Forces’, University of New South Wales Law Journal, 36 (2), 642–81

16. Derek Bowett (1972), ‘Reprisals Involving Recourse to Armed Force’, American Journal of International Law, 66 (1), January, 1–36

17. Tom Ruys (2008), ‘The “Protection of Nationals” Doctrine Revisited’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 13 (2), 233–71

18. Thomas M. Franck and Nigel S. Rodley (1973), ‘After Bangladesh: The Law of Humanitarian Intervention by Military Force’, American Journal of International Law, 67 (2), April, 275–305

19. Bruno Simma (1999), ‘NATO, the UN and the Use of Force: Legal Aspects’, European Journal of International Law, 10 (1), 1–22

20. Antonio Cassese (1999), ‘Ex iniuria ius oritur: Are We Moving towards International Legitimation of Forcible Humanitarian Countermeasures in the World Community?’, European Journal of International Law, 10 (1), 23–30

21. Christine Gray (2013), ‘The Use of Force for Humanitarian Purposes’, in Nigel D. White and Christian Henderson (eds), Research Handbook on International Conflict and Security Law: Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello and Jus post Bellum, Chapter 7, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 229–55

22. Christine Gray (2013), ‘The International Court of Justice and the Use of Force’, in Christian J. Tams and James Sloan (eds), The Development of International Law by the International Court of Justice, Chapter 11, New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, 237–61



Volume II

Introduction An introduction by the editors appears in Volume I

PART I FORCIBLE MEASURES UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED NATIONS
1. Oscar Schachter (1991), ‘United Nations Law in the Gulf Conflict’, American Journal of International Law, 85 (3), July, 452–73

2. Ruth Gordon (1994), ‘United Nations Intervention in Internal Conflicts: Iraq, Somalia, and Beyond’, Michigan Journal of International Law, 15 (2), Winter, 519–89

3. Yasushi Akashi (1995), ‘The Use of Force in a United Nations Peace-Keeping Operation: Lessons Learnt from the Safe Areas Mandate’, Fordham International Law Journal, 19 (2), 312–23

4. Ugo Villani (2002), ‘The Security Council’s Authorization of Enforcement Action by Regional Organizations’, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, 6, 535–57

5. Jules Lobel and Michael Ratner (1999), ‘Bypassing the Security Council: Ambiguous Authorizations to Use Force, Cease-Fires, and the Iraqi Inspection Regime’, American Journal of International Law, 93 (1), January, 124–54

6. Niels Blokker (2000), ‘Is the Authorization Authorized? Powers and Practice of the UN Security Council to Authorize the Use of Force by “Coalitions of the Able and Willing”’, European Journal of International Law, 11 (3), 541–68

7. Dino Kritsiotis (2004), ‘Arguments of Mass Confusion’, European Journal of International Law, 15 (2), 233–78

8. Sean D. Murphy (2004), ‘Assessing the Legality of Invading Iraq’, Georgetown Law Journal, 92 (4), 173–257

9. Nigel D. White (2004), ‘The Will and Authority of the Security Council after Iraq’, Leiden Journal of International Law, 17 (4), December, 645–72

10. Andrew J. Carswell (2013), ‘Unblocking the UN Security Council: The Uniting for Peace Resolution’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 18 (3), Winter, 453–80

PART II: FORCIBLE MEASURES IN UNILATERAL AND COLLECTIVE SELF-DEFENCE
11. Ian Brownlie (1961), ‘The Use of Force in Self-Defence’, British Year Book of International Law, 27, 183–268

12. D.W Bowett (1955–56), ‘Collective Self-Defence under the Charter of the United Nations’, British Year Book of International Law, 32, 130–61 [32]

13. D.W. Greig (1991), ‘Self-Defence and the Security Council: What Does Article 51 Require?’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 40 (2), April, 366–402

14. Michael Byers (2002), ‘Terrorism, The Use of Force and International Law after 11 September’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 51 (2), April, 401–14

15. Elizabeth Wilmshurst (2006), ‘The Chatham House Principles of International Law on the Use of Force in Self-Defence’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 55 (4), October, 963–72

16. Kimberley N. Trapp (2007), ‘Back to Basics: Necessity, Proportionality, and the Right of Self-Defence against Non-State Terrorist Actors’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 56 (1), January, 141–56

17. Christian J. Tams (2009), ‘The Use of Force against Terrorists’, European Journal of International Law, 20 (2), 359–97

18. Theresa Reinold (2011), ‘State Weakness, Irregular Warfare, and the Right to Self-Defense Post-9/11’, American Journal of International Law, 105 (2), April, 244–286

19. Michael Bothe (2003), ‘Terrorism and the Legality of Pre-emptive Force’, European Journal of International Law, 14 (2), 227–40

20. Christopher Greenwood (2003), ‘International Law and the Pre-emptive Use of Force: Afghanistan, Al-Qaida, and Iraq’, San Diego International Law Journal, 4, May, 7–37

21. Daniel Bethlehem (2012), ‘Self-Defense against an Imminent or Actual Armed Attack by Nonstate Actors’, American Journal of International Law, 106 (4), October, 770–77

22. Michael N. Schmitt (1999), ‘Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework’, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 37 (3), 885–937



Volume III

Introduction An introduction by the editors appears in Volume I

PART I NATURE AND INFLUENCES
1. Theodor Meron (2000), ‘The Humanization of Humanitarian Law’, American Journal of International Law, 94 (2), April, 239–78

2. Chris af Jochnick and Roger Normand (1994), ‘The Legitimation of Violence: A Critical History of the Laws of War’, Harvard International Law Journal, 35 (1), Winter, 49–95

3. John B. Bellinger III and Vijay M. Padmanabhan (2011), ‘Detention Operations in Contemporary Conflicts: Four Challenges for the Geneva Conventions and Other Existing Law’, American Journal of International Law, 105 (2), April, 201–43

4. Frédéric Mégret (2006), ‘From “Savages” to “Unlawful Combatants”: A Postcolonial Look at International Humanitarian Law's “Other”’, in Anne Orford (ed.), International Law and its Others, Chapter 11, New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 265–317

PART II APPLICABILITY AND RELATIONSHIPS
5. Christopher Greenwood (1987), ‘The Concept of War in Modern International Law’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 36 (2), April, 283–306

6. Christopher Greenwood (1983), ‘The Relationship between Ius ad bellum and Ius in Bello’, Review of International Studies, 9 (4), October, 221–34

7. Alexander Orakhelashvili (2007), ‘Overlap and Convergence: The Interaction between Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 12 (2), Spring, 157–96

8. Heike Krieger (2006), ‘A Conflict of Norms: The Relationship between Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law in the ICRC Customary Study’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 11 (2), Summer, 265–91

9. Dapo Akande (2012), ‘Classification of Armed Conflicts: Relevant Legal Concepts’, in Elizabeth Wilmshurst (ed.), International Law and the Classification of Conflicts, Chapter 3, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 32–79

10. James G. Stewart (2003), ‘Towards a Single Definition of Armed Conflict in International Humanitarian Law: A Critique of Internationalized Armed Conflict’, International Review of the Red Cross, 85 (850), June, 313–49

11. Sandesh Sivakumaran (2006), ‘Binding Armed Opposition Groups’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 55 (2), April, 369–94

12. Nicolas Lamp (2011), ‘Conceptions of War and Paradigms of Compliance: The “New War” Challenge to International Humanitarian Law’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 16 (2), July, 225–62

13. Hans-Peter Gasser, (2002) ‘Acts of Terror, “Terrorism” and International Humanitarian Law’, International Review of the Red Cross, 84 (847), September, 547–70

14. Michael Schmitt (2012), ‘Classification of Cyber Conflict’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 17 (2), Summer, 245–60

PART III SOURCES
15. Theodor Meron (1987), ‘The Geneva Conventions as Customary Law’, American Journal of International Law, 81 (2), April, 348–70

16. Jean-Marie Henckaerts (2005), ‘Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law: A Contribution to the Understanding and Respect for the Rule of Law in Armed Conflict’, International Review of the Red Cross, 87 (857), March, 175–212

17. Jean-Marie Henckaerts (2007), ‘Customary International Humanitarian Law: A Response to US Comments’, International Review of the Red Cross, 89 (866), June, 473–488

18. Antonio Cassese (2000), ‘The Martens Clause: Half a Loaf or Simply Pie in the Sky?’, European Journal of International Law, 11 (1), 187–216

19. Theodor Meron (2000), ‘The Martens Clause, Principles of Humanity, and Dictates of Public Conscience’, American Journal of International Law, 94 (1), January, 78–89

20. Robert Cryer (2006), ‘Of Custom, Treaties, Scholars and the Gavel: The Influence of the International Criminal Tribunals on the ICRC Customary Law Study’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 11 (2), Summer, 239–63



Volume IV


Introduction An introduction by the editors appears in Volume I


PART I SELECTED SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES
1. Major Richard R. Baxter (1951), ‘So-Called “Unprivileged Belligerency”: Spies, Guerrillas, and Saboteurs’, British Year Book of International Law, 28, 323–45

2. Nils Melzer (2008), ‘Interpretative Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law’, International Review of the Red Cross, 90 (872), December, 991–1047

3. Nils Melzer (2010), ‘Keeping the Balance between Military Necessity and Humanity: A Response to Four Critiques of the ICRC's Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities’, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 42 (3), Spring, 831–916

4. Marco Roscini (2005), ‘Targeting and Contemporary Aerial Bombardment’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 54 (2), April, 411–43

5. Adam Roberts (1984), ’What is a Military Occupation?’, British Year Book of International Law, 55 (1), 249–305

6. David J. Scheffer (2003), ‘Beyond Occupation Law’, American Journal of International Law, 97 (4), October, 842–60

7. Christopher Greenwood (1998), ‘The Law of Weaponry at the Start of the New Millennium’, in Michael N. Schmitt and Leslie C. Green (eds), International Law Studies: Volume 71 – The Law of Armed Conflict: Into the Next Millennium, Chapter 7, Newport, RI, USA: Naval War College, 185–231

8. Louise Doswald-Beck (1995), ‘The San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea’, American Journal of International Law, 89 (1), January, 192–208

PART II PRACTICAL APPLICATION
9. Michael Bothe (2001), ‘The Protection of the Civilian Population and NATO Bombing on Yugoslavia: Comments on a Report to the Prosecutor of the ICTY’, European Journal of International Law, 12 (3), 531–35

10. Robert Cryer (2002), ‘The Fine Art of Friendship: Jus in Bello in Afghanistan’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 7 (1), April, 37–83

11. Diane Marie Amann (2004), ‘Guantánamo’, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (2), 263–348

12. Lindsey Cameron (2006), ‘Private Military Companies: Their Status under International Humanitarian Law and its Impact on their Regulation’, International Review of the Red Cross, 88 (863), September, 573–98

PART III IMPLEMENTATION
13. Peter Rowe (2008), ‘Military Misconduct during International Armed Operations: "Bad Apples" or Systemic Failure?’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 13 (2), Summer, 165–89

14. Steven R. Ratner (2011), ‘Law Promotion beyond Law Talk: The Red Cross, Persuasion, and the Laws of War’, European Journal of International Law, 22 (2), 459–506

15. Frits Kalshoven (1999), ‘The Undertaking to Respect and Ensure Respect in All Circumstances: From Tiny Seed to Ripening Fruit’, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 2, December, 3–61

16. Rogier Bartels (2013), ‘Discrepancies between International Humanitarian Law on the Battlefield and in the Courtroom: The Challenges of Applying International Humanitarian Law during International Criminal Trials’, in Mariëlle Matthee, Brigit Toebes and Marcel Brus (eds), Armed Conflict and International Law: In Search of the Human Face – Liber Amicorum in Memory of Avril McDonald, Chapter 14, The Hague, the Netherlands: T.M.C Asser Press, 339–78

17. Christopher Greenwood (1996), ‘International Humanitarian Law and the Tadic Case’, European Journal of International Law, 7 (2), 265–83

18. Frits Kalshoven (2003), ‘Reprisals and the Protection of Civilians: Two Recent Decisions of the Yugoslavia Tribunal’ in Lal Chand Vohrah, Fausto Pocar, Yvonne Featherstone, Olivier Fourmy, Christine Graham, John Hocking and Nicholas Robson (eds), Man’s Inhumanity to Man: Essays on International Law in Honour of Antonio Cassese, Chapter 23, The Hague, the Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 481–509

Index