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Social Psychology

Edited by Elliot Aronson, Professor of Psychology and Director and Anthony R. Pratkanis, Graduate Programme in Social Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, US
This major reference work is a collection of over 125 of the best, most significant and influential articles in the field of social psychology. The three volume set provides a comprehensive overview of the field of social psychology including such topics as social cognition, attribution, attitudes, self, conformity, persuasion, groups, aggression, attraction, racism and research methods. Each article was selected on the basis of its contribution to the advancement of social psychological knowledge and to provide the reader with a representative sampling of the best articles in each of the major sub-fields (topics) of social psychology.
Three volume set
Extent: 1,968 pp
Hardback Price: $1029.00 Web: $926.10
Publication Date: 1993
ISBN: 978 1 85278 422 5
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  • Social Policy and Sociology
  • Comparative Social Policy
This major reference work is a collection of over 125 of the best, most significant and influential articles in the field of social psychology. The three volume set provides a comprehensive overview of the field of social psychology including such topics as social cognition, attribution, attitudes, self, conformity, persuasion, groups, aggression, attraction, racism and research methods. Each article was selected on the basis of its contribution to the advancement of social psychological knowledge and to provide the reader with a representative sampling of the best articles in each of the major sub-fields (topics) of social psychology.

Social Psychology covers over 70 years of social psychological research including articles of great historical significance and contemporary pieces destined to become classics in the field. It will be an essential reference source to those teaching graduate seminars as well as to the generalist seeking primary sources to provide an in-depth overview of the field of social psychology.
‘The International Library of Critical Writings in Psychology, Social Psychology volumes – a carefully selected set of important contributions, which compares favourably to the excellent SPSSI collections produced in the 1950s and 1960s. At the same time, this collection is much more extensive and comprehensive than those valuable earlier collections. The decision to produce the writings in photo-reproduction form makes them especially useful as a scholarly resource.’
– Anthony G. Greenwald, Department of Washington, US

‘Teachers and students of social psychology will delight in having available for the first time this wonderful resource of original articles and chapters that have shaped the intellectual direction of their discipline. Aronson and Pratkanis have culled the most influential materials from dozens of American and European journals that illuminate the nature of social psychology in all its complex richness. Within the 19 separate categories spanning this three volume set, the authors have organised a wealth of information for ready access – making it likely that it will prove to be frequently used invaluable reference work.’
– Philip Zimbardo, Stanford University, US
Contents:
Acknowledgements
Introduction: What is Social Psychology?

Volume I
PART I: SOCIAL PERCEPTION AND JUDGEMENT
1. William I. Thomas and Florian Znnaniecki (1947), ‘The Definition of the Situation’
2. S.E. Asch (1946), ‘Forming Impressions of Personality’
3. Norman H. Anderson (1965), ‘Primacy Effects in Personality Impression Formation Using a Generalised Order Effect Paradigm’
4. Carl I. Hovland and Muzafer Sherif (1952), ‘Judgmental Phenomena and Scales of Attitude Measurement: Item Displacement in Thurstone Scales’
5. Lee Ross, David Greene and Pamela House (1977), ‘The "False Consensus Effect": An Egocentric Bias in Social Perception and Attribution Processes’
6. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman (1973), ‘Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases’
7. David L. Hamilton and Robert K. Gifford (1976), ‘Illusory Correlation in Interpersonal Perception: A Cognitive Basis of Stereotypic Judgments’
8. Baruch Fischhoff (1975), ‘Hindsight =/ Foresight. The Effect of Outcome Knowledge on Judgment Under Uncertainty’
9. Paul M. Herr (1986), ‘Consequences of Priming: Judgment and Behavior’
10. E. Tory Higgins, Gillian A. King and Gregory H. Mavin (1982), ‘Individual Construct Accessibility and Subjective Impressions and Recall’
11. Elizabeth K. Dreben, Susan T. Fiske and Reid Hastie (1979), ‘The Independence of Evaluative and Item Information: Impression and Recall Order Effects in Behavior-Based Impression Formation’
PART II: SOCIAL COGNITION AND MEMORY
12. Shelley E. Taylor and Jennifer Crocker (1981), ‘Schematic Bases of Social Information Processing’
13. Reid Hastie and Purohit Anand Kumar (1979), ‘Person Memory: Personality Traits as Organizing Principles in Memory for Behaviors’
14. John W. Howard and Myron Rothbart (1980), ‘Social Categorization and Memory for In-Group and Out-Group Behavior’
15. Michael Ross, Cathy McFarland and Garth J.O. Fletcher (1981), ‘The Effect of Attitude on the Recall of Personal Histories’
16. Robert B. Zajonc (1960), ‘The Process of Cognitive Tuning in Communication’
17. Renneé Weber and Jennifer Crocker (1983), ‘Cognitive Processes in the Revision of Stereotyping Beliefs’
18. Murray G. Millar and Abraham Tesser (1986), ‘Thought-Induced Attitude Change: The Effects of Schema Structure and Commitment’
19. Philip E. Tetlock (1986), ‘A Value Pluralism Model of Ideological Reasoning’
PART III: ATTRIBUTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
20. Fritz Heider and Marianne Simmel (1944), ‘An Experiment Study of Apparent Behavior’
21. Daryl J. Bem (1967), ‘Self-Perception Theory: An Alternative Interpretation of Dissonance Phenomena’
22. Edward E. Jones and Victor A. Harris (1967), ‘The Attribution of Attitudes’
23. Michael D. Storms (1973), ‘Videotape and the Attribution Process: Reversing Actors' and Observers' Points of View’
24. Lee Ross, Mark R. Lepper and Michael Hubbard (1975), ‘Perseverance in Self-Perception and Social Perception: Biased Attributional Processes in the Debriefing Paradigm’
25. Richard E. Nissbett and Eugene Borgida (1975), ‘Attribution and the Psychology of Prediction’
26. Harold H. Kelley (1973), ‘The Processes of Causal Attribution’
27. Lee Ross (1977), ‘Shortcomings of the Intuitive Psychologist’
28. Gifford Weary Bradley (1978), ‘Self-Serving Biases in the Attribution Process: A Reexamination of the Fact or Fiction Question’
29. Miles Hewstone, Jos Jaspars and Mansur Lalljee (1982), ‘Social Representations, Social Attribution, and Social Identity: The Intergroup Images of "Public" and "Comprehensive" Schoolboys’
PART IV: SOCIAL EXPECTATIONS AND BEHAVIOR

30. N.T. Feather (1961), ‘The Relationship of Persistence at a Task to Expectation of Success and Achievement Related Motives.’
31. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968), ‘Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in the Classroom: Teacher's Expectations as Unintended Determinants of Pupils' Intellectual Competence.’
32. Carl O. Word, Mark P. Zanna and Joel Cooper (1974), ‘The Nonverbal Mediation of of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Interracial Interaction.’
33. Richard L. Miller, Philip Brickman and Diana Bolen (1975), ‘Attribution Versus Persuasion as a Means for Modifying Behavior.’
34. Mark Synder, Elizabeth Decker Tanke and Ellen Berscheid (1977), ‘Social Perception and Interpersonal Behavior: On the Self-Fulfilling Nature of Social Stereotypes.’
35. Carol S. Dweck, William Davidson, Sharon Nelson and Bradley Enna (1978), ‘Sex Differences in Learned Helplessness: II. The Contingencies of Evaluative Feedback in the Classroom and III. An Experimental Analysis.’
36. John M. Darley and Paget H. Gross (1983), ‘A Hypothesis-Confirming Bias in Labeling Effects.’


PART V ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR

37. G.W. Allport (1935), ‘Attitudes.’
38. Richard T. LaPiere (1934), ‘Attitudes vs. Actions.’
39. Arthur W. Staats and Carolyn K. Staats (1958), ‘Attitudes Established by Classical Conditioning.’
40. Daniel Katz (1960), ‘The Functional Approach to the Study of Attitudes.’
41. Steven J. Breckler (1984), ‘Empirical Validation of Affect, Behavior and Cognition as Distinct Components of Attitude.’
42. I. Ajzen and M. Fishbein (1980), ‘Theoretical Implications.’
43. Russell H. Fazio and Carol J. Williams (1986), ‘Attitude Accessibility as a Moderator of the Attitude-Perception and Attitude-Behavior Relations: An Investigation of the 1984 Presidential Election.’

Name Index


Volume II

Acknowledgements

PART I THE SELF-CONCEPT

1. Mark Synder (1974), ‘The Self-Monitoring of Expressive Behavior.’
2. Robert A. Wicklund (1975), ‘Objective Self-Awareness.’
3. Michael F. Scheier and Charles S. Carver (1980), ‘Private and Public Self-Attention, Resistance to Change, and Dissonance Reduction.’
4. William J. McGuire and Alice Padawer-Singer (1976), ‘Trait Salience in the Spontaneous Self-Concept.’
5. T.B. Rogers, N.A. Kuiper and W.S. Kirker (1977), ‘Self-Reference and the Encoding of Personal Information.’
6. Hazel Markus (1977), ‘Self-Schemata and Processing of Information about the Self.’
7. Robert W. White (1959), ‘Motivation Reconsidered: The Concept of Competence.’
8. Anthony G. Greenwald (1980), ‘The Totalitarian Ego: Fabrication and Revision of Personal History.’

PART II SELF-MAINTENANCE AND SELF-ENHANCEMENT

9. Leon Festinger (1954), ‘A Theory of Social Comparison Processes.’
10. Elliot Aronson and David R. Mettee (1968), ‘Dishonest Behavior as a Function of Differential Levels of Induced Self-Esteem.’
11. J. Merrill Carlsmith and Alan E. Gross (1969), ‘Some Effects of Guilt on Compliance.’
12. J. Brehm (1966), A Theory of Psychological Reactance, pp 1-12.
13. Abraham Tesser and Jennifer Campbell (1982), ‘Self-Evaluation Maintenance and the Perception of Friends and Strangers.’
14. William B. Swann Jr. (1987), ‘Identity Negotiation: Where Two Roads Meet.’
15. Claude M. Steele and Thomas J. Liu (1983), ‘Dissonance Processes as Self-Affirmation.’
16. Steven Berglas and Edward E. Jones (1978), ‘Drug Choice as a Self-Handicapping Strategy in Response to Noncontingent Success.’


PART III SELF JUSTIFICATION

17. Leon Festinger and Elliot Aronson (1960), ‘Arousal and Reduction of Dissonance in Social Contexts.’
18. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith (1959), ‘Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance.’
19. Elliot Aronson and Judson Mills (1959), ‘The Effects of Severity of Initiation on Liking for a Group.’
20. A.R. Cohen (1962), ‘An Experiment on Small Rewards for Discrepant Compliance and Attitude Change.’
21. Robert P. Abelson (1959), ‘Modes of Resolution of Belief Dilemmas.’
22. Jonathan L. Freedman (1965), ‘Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Cognitive Dissonance.’
23. Mark R. Lepper and David Greene (1975), ‘Turning Play into Work: Effects of Adult Surveillance and Extrinsic Rewards on Children's Intrinsic Motivation.’
24. Dieter Frey (1982), ‘Different Levels of Cognitive Dissonance, Information Seeking and Information Avoidance.’

PART IV AFFECT AND EMOTION

25. Stanley Schacter and Jerome E. Singer (1962), ‘Cognitive, Social and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State.’
26. R.B. Zajonc (1980), ‘Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need no Inferences.’
27. Paul Ekman, Wallace V. Friesen, Sonia Ancoli (1980), ‘Facial Signs of Emotional Experience.’
28. Alice M. Isen, Thomas E. Shalker, Margaret Clark and Lynn Karp (1978), ‘Affect Accessibility of Material in Memory, and Behavior: A Cognitive Loop?’

PART V CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE

29. Muzafer Sherif (1947), ‘Group Influences upon the Formation of Norms and Attitudes.’
30. Soloman E. Asch (1955), ‘Opinions and Social Pressure.’
31. Stanley Milgram (1963), ‘Behavioral Study of Obedience.’
32. Craig Haney, Curtis Banks and Philip Zimbardo (1973), ‘Interpersonal Dynamics in a Simulated Prison.’
33. S. Moscovici, E. Lage and M. Naffrechoux (1969), ‘Influence of a Consistent Minority on the Responses of a Majority in a Color Perception Task.’

PART VI INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCE AND COMPLIANCE

34. Morton Deutsch and Harold B. Gerard (1955), ‘A Study of Normative and Informational Social Influences upon Individual Judgment.’
35. Dominic Abrams, Margaret Wetherell, Sandra Cochrane, Michael A. Hogg and John C. Turner (1990), ‘Knowing What to Think by Knowing Who You Are: Self-Categorization and the Nature of Norm Formation, Conformity and Group Polarization.’
36. Herbert C. Kelman (1958), ‘Compliance, Identification and Internalization: Three Processes of Attitude Change.’
37. Jonathan L. Freedman and Scott C. Fraser (1966), ‘Compliance without Pressure: The Foot-in-the-Door Technique.’
38. Robert B. Cialdini, Joyce E. Vincent, Stephen K. Lewis, José Catalan, Diane Wheeler and Betty Lee Darby (1975), ‘Reciprocal Concessions Procedure for Inducing Compliance: The Door-in-the-Face Technique.’
39. Robert B. Cialdini, John T. Cacioppo, Rodney Bassett and John A. Miller (1978), ‘Low-Ball Procedure for Producing Compliance: Commitment then Cost.’

PART VII COMMUNICATION AND PERSUASION

40. Carl I. Hovland and Walter Weiss (1951), ‘The Influence of Source Credibility on Communication Effectiveness.’
41. C. Hovland, O.J. Harvey and M. Sherif (1957), ‘Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Reaction to Communication and Attitude Change.’
42. Norman Miller and Donald T. Campbell (1959), ‘Recency and Primacy in Persuasion as a Function of the Timing of Speeches and Measurements.’
43. Elliot Aronson, Judith A. Turner and J. Merrill Carlsmith (1963), ‘Communicator Credibility and Communication Discrepancy as Determinants of Opinion Change.’
44. William J. McGuire and Demetrios Papageorgis (1961), ‘The Relative Efficacy of Various Types of Prior Belief-Defense in Producing Immunity Against Persuasion,’
45. Robert B. Zajonc (1968), ‘Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure.’
46. Howard Leventhal, Robert Singer and Susan Jones (1965), ‘Effects of Fear and Specificity of Recommendation Upon Attitudes and Behavior.’
47. Anthony R. Pratkanis, Anthony G. Greenwald, Michael R. Leippe and Michael H. Baumgardner (1988), ‘In Search of Reliable Persuasion Effects: III. The Sleeper Effect is Dead. Long Live the Sleeper Effect.’
48. R.E. Petty, J.T. Cacioppo and R. Goldman (1981), ‘Personal Involvement as a Determinant of Argument-Based Persuasion.’

Name Index

Volume III

Acknowledgments

PART I GROUP INFLUENCES AND DYNAMICS

1. Theodore M. Newcombe (1947), ‘Some Patterned Consequences of Membership in a College Community.’
2. Kurt Lewin (1947), ‘Group Decision and Social Change.’
3. Ronald Lippitt and Ralph K. White (1947), ‘An Experimental Study of Leadership and Group Life.’
4. Seymour Lieberman (1956), ‘The Effects of Changes in Roles on the Attitudes of Role Occupants.’
5. Leon Festinger (1950), ‘Informal Social Communication.’
6. John W. Thibaut and Harold H. Kelley (1959), ‘Analysis and Concepts.’
7. Irving L. Janis (1983), Groupthink (2nd edition), pp 2-5, 7-9, 174-177, 310.
8. Eugen Burnstein and Amiram Vinokur (1973), ‘Testing Two Classes of Theories about Group Induced Shifts in Individual Choice.’
9. Robert B. Zajonc (1965), ‘Social Facilitation.’
10. Bibb Latané, Kipling Williams and Stephen Harkins (1979), ‘Many Hands Make Light the Work: The Causes and Consequences of Social Loafing.’

PART II AGGRESSION

11. Neal E. Miller et al. (1947), ‘Frustration and Aggression.’
12. Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Ross (1963), ‘Imitation of Film-Mediated Aggressive Models.’
13. Leonard Berkowitz (1964), ‘The Effects of Observing Violence.’
14. Russell G. Geen, David Stonner and Gary L. Shope (1975), ‘The Facilitation of Aggression by Aggression: Evidence against the Catharsis Hypothesis.’
15. David P. Phillips (1983), ‘The Impact of Mass Media Violence on US Homicides.’
16. Dane Archer and Rosemary Gartner (1978), ‘Peacetime Casualties: The Effects of War on Violent Behavior of Noncombatants.’
17. R.A. Baron (1977), ‘Prevention and Control of Human Aggression.’


PART III PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

18. James H. Bryan and Mary A. Test (1967), ‘Models and Helping: Naturalistic Studies in Aiding Behavior.’
19. Bibb Latané and John M. Darley (1970), ‘Social Determinants of Bystander Intervention in Emergencies.’
20. C. Daniel Batson, Bruce D. Duncan, Paula Ackerman, Terese Buckley and Kimberley Birch (1981), ‘Is Empathic Emotion a Source of Altruistic Motivation?’
21. Alice M. Isen and Paula F. Levin (1972), ‘The Effect of Feeling Good on Helping: Cookies and Kindness.’


PART IV INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION

22. Theodore M. Newcomb (1963), ‘Stabilities Underlying Changes in Interpersonal Attraction.’
23. Elaine Hatfield, G. William Walster, Jane Piliavin and Lynn Schmidt (1973), ‘"Playing Hard to Get: Understanding an Elusive Phenomenon.’
24. Elaine Hatfield, Vera Aronson, Darcy Abrahams and Leon Rottman (1966), ‘Importance of Physical Attractiveness in Dating Behavior.’
25. Donn Byrne and Don Nelson (1965), ‘Attraction as a Linear Function of Proportion of Positive Reinforcements.’
26. Elliot Aronson and Darwyn Linder (1965), ‘Gain and Loss of Esteem as Determinants of Interpersonal Attractiveness.’
27. Karen Dion, Ellen Berscheid and Elaine Hatfield (1972), ‘What is Beautiful is Good.’
28. Donald Dutton and Arthur P. Aron (1974), ‘Some Evidence for Heightened Sexual Attraction under Conditions of High Anxiety.’
29. Douglas T. Kenrick and Robert B. Cialdini (1977), ‘Romantic Attraction: Misattribution Versus Reinforcement Explanations.’

PART V PREJUDICE AND RACISM

30. Daniel Katz and Kenneth W. Braly (1947), ‘Verbal Stereotypes and Racil Prejudice.’
31. Kenneth B. Clark and Mamie P. Clark (1947), ‘Racial Identification and Preference in Negro Children.’
32. Else Frenkel-Brunswick, Daniel J. Levinson and R. Nevitt Sanford (1947), ‘The Antidemocratic Personality.’
33. Thomas F. Pettigrew (1959), ‘Regional Differences in Anti-Negro Prejudice.’
34. Morton Deutsch and Mary Evans Collins (1958), ‘The Effect of Public Policy in Housing Projects Upon Interracial Attitudes.’
35. Muzafer Sherif (1956), ‘Experiments in Group Conflict.’
36. Henri Tajfel (1970), ‘Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination.’
37. Samuel Gaertner and Leonard Bickman (1971), ‘Effects of Race on the Elicitation of Helping Behavior: The Wrong Number Technique.’
38. Donald R. Kinder and David O. Sears (1981), ‘Prejudice and Politics: Symbolic Racism Versus Racial Threat to the Good Life.’
39. Stuart W. Cook (1979), ‘Social Science and School Desegregation: Did We Mislead the Supreme Court?’
40. Elliot Aronson and Diane Bridgeman (1979), ‘Jigsaw Groups and the Desegregated Classroom: In Pursuit of Common Goals.’

PART VI RESEARCHING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

41. Carl I. Hovland (1959), ‘Reconciling Conflicting Results Derived from Experimental and Survey Studies of Attribute Change.’
42. Philip E. Tetlock and Ariel Levi (1982), ‘Attribution Bias: On the Inconclusiveness of the Cognition-Motivation Debate.’
43. William J. McGuire (1983), ‘A Contexualist Theory of Knowledge: Its Implications for Innovation and Reform in Psychological Reactance.’
44. Robert B. Cialdini (1980), ‘Full-Cycle Social Psychology.’
45. Douglas G. Mook (1983), ‘^n Defense of External Invalidity.’

Name Index