Innovation and Appropriate Technologies for International Development
Series editors; Philippe Régnier, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Switzerland, with Daniel Frey, Research Director, Development-Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, US, Koshy Varghese, Professor of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Madras (IITM) Chennai, India and Samuel Pierre, Full Professor, Director of the Mobile Computing and Networking Research Laboratory (LARIM), Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Polytechnique Montréal, Montreal, Canada
Since the late 20th century, a rapid expansion of entrepreneurship and innovation has been taking place in the developing world, and especially in emerging countries. Appropriate technology refers to innovation and its applications, both in the formal and informal economy. It is generally viewed as accessible, affordable, and users’ friendly. It matches local environments and sustainable impact development needs, in particular limited human, technical and financial resource capacities, and thus contrasts with capital-intensive technology and high tech transfer strategies led by industrialized countries. Advocates of alternative and people-centered technologies introduced the concept of appropriate technologies in the 1960s-70s. Since the late 1990s, this concept has evolved in several directions including low cost and robust innovation, reverse or simplified technology, open access innovation, impact investment, enterprise sustainability, crowdfunding and start-ups. It has been even extended to the notion of the simplest level of technology targeting any intended development purpose. This new series explores disruptive forms of innovation producing appropriate technologies for international development alongside empirical analyses of various cases and experiences in manufacturing or services. The series also contains various materials, which can be used for teaching and training both in developed and emerging countries.