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Democracy and International Law

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Democracy and International Law

9781788114745 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Gregory H. Fox, Professor of Law and Director, Program for International Legal Studies, Wayne State University Law School, Detroit and Brad R. Roth, Professor of Political Science and Law and Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Political Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, US
Publication Date: November 2020 ISBN: 978 1 78811 474 5 Extent: 944 pp
At the end of the Cold War, international law scholars engaged in furious debate over whether principles of democratic legitimacy had entered international law. Many argued that a ‘democratic entitlement’ was emerging. Others were skeptical that international practice in democracy promotion was either consistent or sufficiently widespread and many found the idea of democratic entitlement dangerous. Those debates, while ongoing, have not been comprehensively revisited in almost twenty years. Together with an original introduction, this volume collects the leading scholarship of the past two decades on these and other questions. It focuses particular attention on the normative consequences of the recent ‘democratic recession’ in many regions of the world.

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Critical Acclaim
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At the end of the Cold War, international law scholars engaged in furious debate over whether principles of democratic legitimacy had entered international law. Many argued that a ‘democratic entitlement’ was emerging. Others were skeptical that international practice in democracy promotion was either consistent or sufficiently widespread and many found the idea of democratic entitlement dangerous. Those debates, while ongoing, have not been comprehensively revisited in almost twenty years. Together with an original introduction, this volume collects the leading scholarship of the past two decades on these and other questions. It focuses particular attention on the normative consequences of the recent ‘democratic recession’ in many regions of the world.
Critical Acclaim
‘This is a timely collection of the best writings from the past two decades on whether liberal-democratic norms have successfully infiltrated international law, a field that—while traditionally built upon the concept of the State—has been agnostic as to governmental legitimacy. A must read for anyone concerned with the implications for inter-State relations of threats to democracy worldwide, and an excellent companion volume to Democratic Governance and International Law (2000).'
– Sean D. Murphy, George Washington University, US, U.N. International Law Commission and former President of the American Society of International Law

Contributors
34 articles, dating from 2003 to 2018
Contributors include: J. d’Aspremont, E. de Wet, G. Fox, T. Legler, S. Marks, C. Pippan, B. Roth, J. Vidmar, D. Wippman
Contents
Contents:

Introduction Gregory H. Fox and Brad R. Roth xii

PART I PRESENT OVERALL STATUS OF EMERGING RIGHT TO
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE
1. Susan Marks (2011), ‘What has Become of the Emerging Right to
Democratic Governance?’, European Journal of International Law,
22 (2), May, 507–24 2
2. Jean d’Aspremont (2011), ‘The Rise and Fall of Democracy
Governance in International Law: A Reply to Susan Marks’,
European Journal of International Law, 22 (2), May, 549–70 20
3. Christian Pippan (2012), ‘Democracy as a Global Norm: Has it
Finally Emerged?’, Matthew Happold (ed.), International Law in a
Multipolar World, Chapter 10, Abingdon, UK and New York, NY,
USA: Taylor & Francis, 203–23 42
4. Jure Vidmar (2014), ‘Judicial Interpretations of Democracy in
Human Rights Treaties’, Cambridge Journal of International and
Comparative Law, 3 (2), 532–55 63
5. Erika de Wet (2015), ‘From Free Town to Cairo via Kiev: The
Unpredictable Road of Democratic Legitimacy in Governmental
Recognition’, American Journal of International Law Unbound,
108, 201–7 87
6. Brad R. Roth (2015), ‘Whither Democratic Legitimism?:
Contextualizing Recent Developments in the Recognition and Non-
Recognition of Governments’, American Journal of International
Law Unbound, 108, 213–18 94
7. Jean d’Aspremont (2015), ‘The Pipe Dream of Constraining
Recognition Through Democracy: International Lawyers’
Regulatory Project Continued’, American Journal of International
Law Unbound, 108, 219–21 100
8. Christina M. Cerna (2015), ‘Democratic Legitimacy and Respect
for Human Rights: The New Gold Standard’, American Journal of
International Law Unbound, 108, 222–7 103
9. Obiora Chinedu Okafor (2015), ‘Democratic Legitimacy as a
Criterion for the Recognition of Governments: A Response to
Professor Erika De Wet’, American Journal of International Law
Unbound, 108, 228–32 109
10. Vasiliki Saranti (2015), ‘Democratic Legitimacy as a Criterion for
Recognizing a Government: Towards the Emergence of a Regional
Customary Rule in The Americas? A Reply to Professor Erika De
Wet’, American Journal of International Law Unbound , 108 , 233–8 114

PART II DEMOCRACY AND SELF-DETERMINATION
11. Russell A. Miller (2003), ‘Self-Determination in International Law
and the Demise of Democracy?’, Columbia Journal of
Transnational Law , 41 , 601–48 121
12. Niels Petersen (2008), ‘The Principle of Democratic Teleology in
International Law’, Brooklyn Journal of International Law , 34 (1),
33–84 169
13. Brad R. Roth (2018), ‘The Relevance of Democratic Principles to
the Self-Determination Norm’, in Peter Hilpold (ed.), Autonomy
and Self-Determination , Chapter 3, Cheltenham, UK and
Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 56–76 221

PART III EVALUATING ELECTIONS
14. Christina Binder (2009), ‘Two Decades of International Electoral
Support: Challenges and Added Value’, Max Planck Yearbook of
United Nations Law , 13 , 213–46 243
15. Avery Davis-Roberts and David J. Carroll (2010), ‘Using
International Law to Assess Elections’, Democratization , 17 (3),
June, 416–41 277
16. Barrie Sander (2019), ‘Democracy Under The Influence: Paradigms
of State Responsibility for Cyber Influence Operations on
Elections’, Chinese Journal of International Law , 18 (1), March,
1–56 303

PART IV THE UNITED NATIONS
17. Gregory H. Fox (2004), ‘Democratization’, in David Malone (ed.),
The UN Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century ,
Chapter 5, Colorado, USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 69–84 360
18. Francesco Mancini (2016), ‘Promoting Democracy’, in Sebastian
von Einsiedel, David M. Malone and Bruno Stagno Ugarte (eds),
The UN Security Council in the 21st Century , Part II, Chapter 12,
Colorado, USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 235–57 376

PART V REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
19. Agustín Ruiz Robledo (2018), ‘The Construction of the Right to
Free Elections by the European Court of Human Rights’,
Cambridge International Law Journal , 7 (2), 225–40 400
20. Enrique Lagos and Timothy D. Rudy (2004), ‘In Defense of
Democracy’, University of Miami Inter-American Law Review, 35
(2), Spring, 283–309 416
21. Thomas Legler and Thomas Kwasi Tieku (2010), ‘What
Difference Can a Path Make? Regional Democracy Promotion
Regimes in the Americas and Africa’, Democratization, 17 (3),
June, 465–91 443
22. Kalkidan N. Obse and Christian Pippan (2015), ‘Collectively
Protecting Constitutionalism and Democratic Governance in
Africa: A Tale of High Hopes and Low Expectations?’, Cambridge
Journal of International and Comparative Law, 4 (2), 344–67 470
23. Solomon A. Dersso (2019), ‘The Status and Legitimacy of Popular
Uprisings in the AU Norms on Democracy and Constitutional
Governance’, Journal of African Law, 63 (S1), May, 107–30 494

PART VI DEMOCRATIC RECESSION
24. Amichai Magen (2015), ‘The Right to Democratic Governance in
an Era of Democratic Recession’, Cambridge Journal of
International and Comparative Law, 4 (2), 368–87 519
25. David Landau (2017), ‘Democratic Erosion and Constitution-
Making Moments: The Role of International Law’, UC Irvine
Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law, 2,
87–112 539

PART VII DEMOCRACY AND INTERNAL CRISES
26. Jacob Wobig (2015), ‘Defending Democracy with International
Law: Preventing Coup Attempts with Democracy Clauses’,
Democratization, 22 (4), 631–54 566
27. Issaka K. Souaré (2014), ‘The African Union as a Norm
Entrepreneur on Military Coups d’État in Africa (1952–2012): An
Empirical Assessment’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 52 (1),
69–94 590
28. Eki Yemisi Omorogbe (2011), ‘A Club of Incumbents? The African
Union and Coups d’État’, Vanderbilt University Journal of
Transnational Law, 44 (1), 123–54 616
29. Ozan O. Varol (2012), ‘The Democratic Coup d’État’, Harvard
International Law Journal, 53 (2), Summer, 291–356 648
30. Matthew Saul (2012), ‘The Search for an International Legal
Concept of Democracy: Lessons from the Post-Conflict
Reconstruction of Sierra Leone’, Melbourne Journal of
International Law, 13 (1), 540–68 714

PART VIII DEMOCRACY, INTERVENTION AND PEACE
31. David Wippman (2015), ‘Pro-Democratic Intervention’, in Marc
Weller (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Use of Force in
International Law, Chapter 36, Oxford, UK and New York, NY,
USA: Oxford University Press, 797–815 744
32. Sara McLaughlin Mitchell and Paul F. Diehl (2012), ‘Caution in
What You Wish For: The Consequences of a Right to Democracy’,
Stanford Journal of International Law, 48 (2), Summer, 289–317 763
33. Simone van den Driest (2010), ‘“Pro-Democratic” Intervention
and the Right to Political Self-Determination: The Case of
Operation Iraqi Freedom’, Netherlands International Law Review,
57 (1), March, 29–72 792
34. Jeremy I. Levitt (2006), ‘Pro-Democratic Intervention in Africa’,
Wisconsin International Law Journal, 24 (3), 785–833 836

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