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Elgar Encyclopedia of Law and Data Science

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Elgar Encyclopedia of Law and Data Science

9781839104589 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Giovanni Comandé, Professor of Law, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies (www.santannapisa.it) and Coordinator, LIDER-Lab (www.lider-lab.it)
Publication Date: January 2022 ISBN: 978 1 83910 458 9 Extent: c 424 pp
This Encyclopedia brings together jurists, computer scientists, and data analysts to map the emerging field of data science and law for the first time, uncovering the challenges, opportunities, and fault lines that arise as these groups are increasingly thrown together by expanding attempts to regulate and adapt to a data-driven world. It explains the concepts and tools at the crossroads of the many disciplines involved in data science and law, bridging scientific and applied domains. Entries span algorithmic fairness, consent, data protection, ethics, healthcare, machine learning, patents, surveillance, transparency and vulnerability.

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The Elgar Encyclopedia of Law and Data Science represents a comprehensive mapping of the field. Comprising over 60 entries, it features contributions from eminent global scholars, drawing on expertise from multiple disciplines, including law and data science, economics, computer engineering, physics, biomedical engineering and history, philosophy, neuro-engineering, political science, and geo-informatics.

This Encyclopedia brings together jurists, computer scientists, and data analysts to uncover the challenges, opportunities, and fault lines that arise as these groups are increasingly thrown together by expanding attempts to regulate and adapt to a data-driven world. It explains the concepts and tools at the crossroads of the many disciplines involved in data science and law, bridging scientific and applied domains. Entries span algorithmic fairness, consent, data protection, ethics, healthcare, machine learning, patents, surveillance, transparency and vulnerability.

Comprehensive yet accessible, this Encyclopedia will be an indispensable resource for scholars of law, data science, artificial intelligence and law and technology. It also contains practical implications for a manifold of users: from domain experts to policy makers, from businesses to practitioners.

Key Features:

• The first Encyclopedic coverage of the field of Law and Data Science
• Over 60 entries
• Entries organized alphabetically for ease of reference
• Full analytical index
• Interrelated multidisciplinary perspectives
• Unique accessibility for non-experts.
Contributors
Contributors include: Denise Amram, Tommaso Banfi, Cesare Bartolini, Bettina Berendt, Enrico Bonadi, Agnese Bonavita, Alessandra Calvi, Andrés Chomczyk Penedo, Gastone Ciuti, Giovanni Comandé, Tommaso Cucinotta, Danielle da Costa Leite Borges, Lorenzo Dalla Corte, Wessel Damen, Antonio Davola, Paul de Hert, Josep Domingo-Ferrer, Juan M. Durán, Hanne Elsen Martina Finocchiaro, Fosca Giannotti, Gloria González Fuster, Mario Guglielmetti, Riccardo Guidotti, Athanasios Kiourtis, Dimosthenis Kyriazis, Roberto Lattanzi, Gabriele Lenzini, Gianclaudio Malgieri, Giuseppe Martinico, Jeanna Matthews, Stan Matwin, Argyro Mavrogiorgou, Alberto Mazzoni, Letizia Milli, Cosimo Monda, Christopher Mondschein, Anna Monreale, Matteo Monti, Mirco Nanni, Michela Natilli, Guido Noto La Diega, Vagelis Papakonstantinou, Luca Pappalardo, Andrea Parziale, Frank Pasquale, Dino Pedreschi, Roberto Pellungrini, Giorgia Pozzi, Francesca Pratesi, Carlotta Rigotti, Salvatore Rinzivillo, Giulio Rossetti, Arianna Rossi, Salvatore Ruggieri, Juraj Sajfert, Silvia Scalzini, Giulia Schneider, Caterina Sganga, Hannes Sigurgeirsson, Marina Sokolova, Franco Turini, Bastiaan van Loenen, Audrey Van Scharen, Itzel Vazquez Sandoval, Matteo Vissani, Vern R. Walker
Contents
Contents:

Introduction to the Encyclopedia of
Law and Data Science: ‘Directions for
Use’ ix
Giovanni Comand.
1 Access 1
Giulia Schneider
2 Accountability 7
Giulia Schneider
3 Algorithm 12
Letizia Milli and Giulio Rossetti
4 Algorithmic Discrimination 17
Bettina Berendt
5 Algorithmic Fairness 32
Salvatore Ruggieri
6 Anonymity 36
Dino Pedreschi, Roberto Pellungrini,
Francesca Pratesi
7 Anonymous Data 41
Lorenzo Dalla Corte
8 Argument Mining 48
Vern R. Walker
9 Artificial General Intelligence 53
Bettina Berendt
10 Bias [definition] 60
Antonio Davola
11 Children (in the Digital
Environment) 64
Denise Amram
12 Clustering (see Data Mining
and Clustering) 70
13 Computer Programs 70
Guido Noto La Diega
14 Confidentiality 73
Arianna Rossi, Itzel Vazquez
Sandoval, Gabriele Lenzini
15 Consent 81
Cesare Bartolini
16 Copyright 83
Caterina Sganga
17 Cybersecurity (in Distributed
Computing Systems) 92
Tommaso Cucinotta
18 Database Protection 98
Caterina Sganga
19 Data Breach 105
Anna Monreale, Roberto Pellungrini,
Francesca Pratesi
20 Data Mining and Clustering 110
Athanasios Kiourtis, Argyro
Mavrogiorgou, Dimosthenis Kyriazis
21 Data Protection 122
Cesare Bartolini
22 Data Protection Impact Assessment 125
Anna Monreale, Roberto Pellungrini,
Francesca Pratesi
23 Data Quality 130
Michela Natilli, Salvatore Rinzivillo,
Franco Turini
24 Data Subject 134
Gloria Gonz.lez Fuster
25 Decision-making 139
Gianclaudio Malgieri
26 Discrimination Data Analysis 142
Salvatore Ruggieri
27 Disparate Impact (from
Software-Based
Decision-Making Systems) 146
Jeanna Neefe Matthews
28 Erasure 150
Cesare Bartolini
29 Ethics 153
Giorgia Pozzi and Juan M. Dur.n
30 Explainability 160
Riccardo Guidotti, Fosca Giannotti,
Dino Pedreschi
31 Fairness 168
Giulia Schneider
32 Forgotten (Right to Be) 175
Paul De Hert and Vagelis
Papakonstantinou
33 Freedom of Information (Freedom
of Expression – Access to Public Data) 181
Matteo Monti
34 Governance (of Personal
Data Flows) 186
Denise Amram
35 Healthcare (Data Science in) 192
Martina Finocchiaro, Tommaso
Banfi, Matteo Vissani, Alberto
Mazzoni, Gastone Ciuti
36 Informed Consent 199
Danielle da Costa Leite Borges
37 Lawfulness and Necessity (of
Possible Limitations on the
Fundamental Rights to Privacy and
to the Protection of Personal Data)
in the EU Legal Order 203
Mario Guglielmetti
38 Legitimate Interest 209
Christopher F. Mondschein and
Cosimo Monda
39 Liability 215
Andrea Parziale
40 Machine Learning 223
Luca Pappalardo
41 Mobility Data (Knowledge
Discovery from) 227
Agnese Bonavita and Giovanni
Comand.
42 Necessity (see Lawfulness and
Necessity (of Possible Limitations on
the Fundamental Rights to Privacy
and to the Protection of Personal
Data) in the EU Legal Order) 241
43 Open Data and Public Sector
Information 241
Lorenzo Dalla Corte and Bastiaan
van Loenen
44 Patents 253
Enrico Bonadio and Hannes
Sigurgeirsson
45 Personal Data in the EU
Legal System 259
Lorenzo Dalla Corte
46 Portability (of Data) 267
Gianclaudio Malgieri
47 Predictive Analytics 271
Mirco Nanni
48 Privacy 275
Carlotta Rigotti and Alessandra
Calvi
49 Privacy by Design 281
Marina Sokolova and Stan Matwin
50 Privacy-Preserving Technologies 291
Josep Domingo-Ferrer
51 Profile/Profiling 300
Salvatore Ruggieri
52 Proportionality 305
Giuseppe Martinico
53 Pseudonymization 310
Anna Monreale, Roberto Pellungrini,
Francesca Pratesi
54 Public Interest (Scientific Research
and the Legal Grounds) 314
Hanne Elsen, Wessel Damen, Audrey
Van Scharen
55 Public Sector Information
(see Open Data and Public Sector
Information) 318
56 Reasonable Safeguards 318
Andr.s Chomczyk Penedo
57 Scoring 323
Frank Pasquale
58 Software (Computer Programs) 326
Guido Noto La Diega
59 Supervisory Authorities (Powers) 329
Roberto Lattanzi
60 Surveillance 341
Juraj Sajfert
61 Trade Secrets and Data-Driven
Innovation in the EU 347
Silvia Scalzini
62 Transparency 354
Giulia Schneider
63 Unfairness [definition] 360
Antonio Davola
64 Vulnerability 363
Gianclaudio Malgieri
Analytical index 371
Index
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