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Energy Law, Climate Change and the Environment

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Energy Law, Climate Change and the Environment

9781788119672 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Martha M. Roggenkamp, Professor of Energy Law and Director, Kars J. de Graaf, Professor of Public Law and Sustainability and Ruven C.Fleming, Assistant Professor of Energy law, Groningen Centre of Energy Law and Sustainability, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Publication Date: 2021 ISBN: 978 1 78811 967 2 Extent: 864 pp
This comprehensive volume of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law provides an overview of the major elements of energy law from a global perspective. Based on an in-depth analysis of the energy chain, it offers insight into the impacts of climate change and environmental issues on energy law and the energy sector. This timely reference work highlights the need for modern energy law to consider environmental impacts and promote the use of clean energy sources, whilst also safeguarding a reliable and affordable energy supply.

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Critical Acclaim
Contributors
Contents
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This comprehensive volume of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law provides an overview of the major elements of energy law from a global perspective. Based on an in-depth analysis of the energy chain, it offers insight into the impacts of climate change and environmental issues on energy law and the energy sector. This timely reference work highlights the need for modern energy law to consider environmental impacts and promote the use of clean energy sources, whilst also safeguarding a reliable and affordable energy supply.

Featuring 65 entries written by leading international scholars and practitioners in the field, the volume is organised into eight thematic parts, each focusing on a specific area of the energy sector. Topics covered include international energy cooperation, the regulation and governance of energy markets, legal regimes governing renewable energy sources, regulation of the transport and supply of energy, consumer protection, and energy savings mechanisms.

Providing an authoritative analysis of key developments in this significant area of law, this volume will be an invaluable resource for researchers, academics and students. Its insights into governance and regulation in the sector will also prove useful to practitioners and policymakers.
Critical Acclaim
‘This impressive and ambitious volume could not be more timely. Climate change now firmly links energy and the environment, and the way in which energy law is structured will profoundly influence the effectiveness of policy responses. Written by leading experts from across the world, this is the most comprehensive examination of energy law to date that has been written with climate change and the environment in mind. As such it will be an essential reference work for lawyers and policy makers engaged in these issues.’
– Richard Macrory, University College London, UK

‘Eighty authors from around the world provide a comprehensive study of energy law. Their 65 entries provide clear explorations of the science and technology, commercial use, and law and regulation of energy sources and uses. Special attention is given to the environmental and social consequences of energy uses ranging from climate change to energy poverty. Scholars, practitioners and interested citizens could all find no better guide to energy's multiple roles in today's and tomorrow's world.’
– Donald Zillman, University of Maine School of Law, US

‘This volume is edited by a formidable set of editors who have a stellar set of authors writing for them on an encyclopedic set of topics related to the broad theme of energy law, climate and the environment. I cannot think of many scholars or practitioners unaffected by the issues covered. Many of the contributors have practical experience with their assigned topic which gives the analysis extra bite. The book is most, most useful both as a practical reference guide on the law as it stands including its history and practical interpretation, and as an analysis of how the status quo ought to be changed to address the crucial issues raised in it.’
– Geert Van Calster, KU Leuven, Belgium
Contributors
Contributors: T.N. Adimazoya, D. Aguilar Abaunza, D. Almeida, D.M. Attanasio, C. Banet, D. Bansal, L. Barrera-Hernández, H. Bjørnebye, L.S. Braaksma, J. Campion, M. Chatelin, K.J. de Graaf, I. del Guayo, L. Diestelmeier, M. Doelle, D. Drankier, A. Eckenroth, F. Elskamp, R.C. Fleming, C. Gabriel Stanescu, M.A. Garzón Albornoz. J. Gazendam, L. Godden, S. Goldberg, J.J. González Márquez, G.W. Gordon, I. Gudkov, H. Gunnlaugsson, L.-N. Harada, B. Hashemolhosseini, M. Hesselman, B. Hudson, A. Ingelson, S. Jusoh, A. Kallies, B. Kengni, G. Kreeft, D. Kuiken, G. Lailong, A. Lucas, B. Martinez Romera, R. Mauger, M.F. Montoya Pardo, H. Mostert, M. Mulder, H.K. Müller, C.T. Nieuwenhout, T.A. O’Keefe, D.S. Olawuyi, R. Ottinger, L. Paddock, P. Parson, J. Paterson, T. Peão Lopes, M. Piri, C. Redgwell, L. Reins, M.M. Roggenkamp, A. Rudyan, P. Sampaio, R. Sampaio, S. Seliverstov, A. Skjønborg Brunt, M.M. Sokołowski, T. Soliman Hunter, L. Squintani, D.G. Tempelman, R. van ’t Hoft, T. Van de Graaf, H.M. van den Berg, J.M. Van Nostrand, C. Verburg, M. Wang, A. Wetherall, E. Woerdman, O. Woolley, C. Yiallourides, C.-L. Young, Y. Zeng
Contents
Contents:

Foreword to the Encyclopedia xviii
Jamie Benidickson and Yves Le Bouthillier
Foreword to Volume IX xix
Michael Faure
List of abbreviations xxi
Introduction to Volume IX 1
Martha M Roggenkamp, Kars J de Graaf and Ruven C Fleming

PART 1 GENERAL CONCEPTS
IX.1 Sovereignty and jurisdiction over energy resources 9
Catherine Redgwell
IX.2 Regulating the energy chain 20
Martha M Roggenkamp
IX.3 The energy trilemma 31
Ruven C Fleming
IX.4 Sustainable development, principles of environmental law and the energy
sector 41
Kars J de Graaf and Lorenzo Squintani

PART 2 INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS
International energy cooperation and trade
IX.5 The International Atomic Energy Agency 57
Jennifer Campion
IX.6 International cooperation in oil and gas: current and evolving roles of
OPEC and GECF 68
Damilola S Olawuyi
IX.7 The International Energy Agency 79
John Paterson and Ruven C Fleming
IX.8 The Energy Charter Treaty 88
Cees Verburg
IX.9 The International Renewable Energy Agency 99
Thijs Van de Graaf
Regional energy cooperation and trade
IX.10 The development of energy cooperation and trade in the European Union 111
Îñigo del Guayo
IX.11 Energy cooperation in North America: from CUSFTA to USMCA 122
Jos. Juan González Márquez, Alastair Lucas and Diego Almeida
IX.12 Energy cooperation in South America: the case of MERCOSUR 134
Lila Barrera-Hernández and Thomas Andrew O’Keefe
IX.13 Energy cooperation in Asia: the case of ASEAN 145
Sufian Jusoh
IX.14 Energy cooperation in Africa: the African Union vs Regional Economic
Communities 156
Taciana Peão Lopes and Cheri-Leigh Young

PART 3 REGULATING ENERGY MARKETS
IX.15 Governance of the energy market in the European Union 169
Silke Goldberg and Anne Eckenroth
IX.16 Governance of the energy markets in Canada 180
Alastair Lucas and Diego Almeida
IX.17 Governance of the energy market in the United States 193
Richard Ottinger, Aaron Rudyan and Bahar Hashemolhosseini
IX.18 Governance of the energy market in Australia 204
Lee Godden and Anne Kallies
IX.19 Governance of the energy market in Russia 216
Sergey Seliverstov and Ivan Gudkov
IX.20 Governance of the energy market in China 227
Wang Mingyuan and Gao Lailong
IX.21 Frameworks for energy governance and regulation in Africa 238
Hanri Mostert, Hugo Meyer van den Berg and Bernard Kengni

PART 4 REGULATING THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR
Exploration and production of oil and gas
IX.22 Overview of legal regimes governing exploration and production of
petroleum 257
Hugo Meyer van den Berg
IX.23 Protecting health, safety and the environment offshore 267
John Paterson
IX.24 Decommissioning of (abandoned or disused) offshore installations 277
Constantinos Yiallourides and Greg W Gordon
New developments
IX.25 Reuse of offshore oil and gas infrastructure: a case study on CCS 291
Dinand Drankier and Joris Gazendam
IX.26 Regulating oil and gas exploration and production in the Arctic 302
Tina Soliman Hunter
IX.27 Regulating the production of shale gas and fracking 313
Leonie Reins and Allan Ingelson
IX.28 Alternatives to natural gas: the legal framework on synthetic natural gas
and biomethane 326
Daisy G Tempelman

PART 5 REGULATING THE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION SECTOR
General
IX.29 Electricity production and emission standards 341
Kars J de Graaf and Lolke S Braaksma
IX.30 Electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions trading 352
Edwin Woerdman and Yingying Zeng
IX.31 Environmental considerations in regulating nuclear energy 363
Anthony Wetherall
Renewable resources
IX.32 Renewable energy sources and the impact on security of supply and
dispatching 377
Fokke Elskamp
IX.33 Regulating the promotion of renewable electricity consumption and
production: a European Union case study 388
Olivia Woolley
IX.34 Regulating the promotion of non-conventional renewable energy sources
in Latin America 399
Milton Fernando Montoya Pardo and María Alejandra Garzón Albornoz
Hydropower
IX.35 Regulation of hydropower in the European Union 413
Henrik Bjørnebye
IX.36 Regulation of hydropower in South America 424
Milton Fernando Montoya Pardo and Daniela Aguilar Abaunza
Wind energy
IX.37 Regulation of wind energy in the European Union 439
Romain Mauger
IX.38 Regulation of wind power in China 450
Wang Mingyuan and Gao Lailong
Solar energy
IX.39 Regulating solar energy in the European Union 463
Michel Chatelin and Louis-Narito Harada
IX.40 Regulating solar energy in Mexico 474
Jos. Juan González Márquez
Biomass
IX.41 Wood-based biomass and electricity in the United States: a case study in
scientific and policy uncertainty 487
Blake Hudson
IX.42 Promoting sustainable energy in Brazil: the role of biomass 498
Rômulo Sampaio and Patrícia Sampaio
Geothermal
IX.43 Regulation of electricity from geothermal heat in Iceland 511
Hilmar Gunnlaugsson
IX.44 Regulation of geothermal resources for energy in New Zealand 522
Phoebe Parson
New developments
IX.45 Regulating offshore wind energy 535
Ceciel T Nieuwenhout
IX.46 Regulating wave, tidal and ocean thermal energy 546
Theodore Nsoe Adimazoya and Meinhard Doelle

PART 6 REGULATING ENERGY TRANSPORT
General
IX.47 Energy networks, natural monopolies and tariff regulation 563
Machiel Mulder and Edwin Woerdman
IX.48 Maritime transport and the environment: energy transport by sea 573
Beatriz Martinez Romera and Catalin Gabriel Stanescu
IX.49 Greening the transport sector: promoting ‘zero emissions vehicles’ in the
EU and US 584
Gijs Kreeft and Dirk Kuiken
Network-bound energy
IX.50 Regulating the use of energy networks in liberalised markets 599
Anne Kallies
IX.51 Regulating electricity network reliability 611
Dirk Kuiken
IX.52 Regulating high voltage power lines: electromagnetic fields and safety 621
Catherine Banet and Astrid Skjønborg Brunt
IX.53 Regulating pipeline safety 633
Mehdi Piri
New developments
IX.54 A legal framework for smart grids 645
Lea Diestelmeier
IX.55 The regulation of microgrids 656
Donna M Attanasio
IX.56 Developing an offshore electricity grid: European and US approaches 668
Ceciel T Nieuwenhout and Hannah K Müller
IX.57 Developing a regulatory framework for electricity storage 679
Gijs Kreeft and Romain Mauger

PART 7 REGULATING ACCESS TO ENERGY AND PROTECTING
ENERGY CONSUMERS
Energy supply and consumption
IX.58 Energy poverty and household access to energy services in international,
regional and national law 695
Marlies Hesselman
IX.59 Protecting energy consumers from the bankruptcies of energy supply
companies 707
René van ’t Hoft
IX.60 Protecting energy consumers via tariff regulation 717
James M Van Nostrand
New developments
IX.61 Regulating residential prosumers 729
Lea Diestelmeier

PART 8 REGULATING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY SAVINGS
IX.62 Regulating energy efficiency in the European Union 741
Martha M Roggenkamp
IX.63 Energy efficiency at energy production level: promoting combined heat
and power 753
Maciej M Sokołowski
IX.64 The role of demand-response mechanisms in promoting energy efficiency 764
LeRoy Paddock
IX.65 Energy efficiency at the consumer level in the United States 776
LeRoy Paddock and Deepti Bansal

Index 789
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