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The Nexus Between Organized Crime and Terrorism

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The Nexus Between Organized Crime and Terrorism

Types and Responses

9781788979290 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Letizia Paoli, Full Professor and Chair of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law, KU Leuven, Belgium, Cyrille Fijnaut, Emeritus Professor of Criminology and Criminal Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Tilburg University, the Netherlands and KU Leuven, Belgium and Jan Wouters, Full Professor of International Law and International Organizations, Jean Monnet Chair ad personam EU and Global Governance and Director, Institute for International Law and Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium
Publication Date: February 2022 ISBN: 978 1 78897 929 0 Extent: c 576 pp
In the post-9/11 era, the nexus between organized crime and terrorism has raised much concern and has been widely discussed in both academic and policy circles, but is still largely misunderstood. This critical book contributes innovatively to the debate by distinguishing three types of nexus—interaction, transformation/imitation and similarities—and identifying the promoting factors of each type.

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Critical Acclaim
Contributors
Contents
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In the post-9/11 era, the nexus between organized crime and terrorism has raised much concern and has been widely discussed in both academic and policy circles, but is still largely misunderstood. This critical book contributes innovatively to the debate by distinguishing three types of nexus—interaction, transformation/imitation and similarities—and identifying the promoting factors of each type.

With its multifaceted but complementary chapters, the book provides conceptual and theoretical frameworks for readers, as well as the evidence needed to develop more realistic, effective and humane policies to tackle organized crime, terrorism and the nexuses between them. Bringing together a range of international multidisciplinary specialists, it includes three comparative analyses of worldwide transfers of personnel, weapons and money between organized crime and terrorism and 12 case studies examining local manifestations of the nexus in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. Two other chapters further review the national, European and international policies adopted and implemented so far to deal with the different nexuses.

This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and policymakers in the fields of comparative law, criminal law and justice and public policy, who specialise in organized crime and terrorism and their control. It will also appeal to senior law enforcement officials and practitioners due to the counterintuitive policy implications drawn from the comparative analysis of the findings
Critical Acclaim
‘Terrorism is a very 21st century global threat. Organized crime has a distinctly 20th century feel to it yet is often related in the public mind with terrorism. This book explores the variable connections of the two. In some places and at some times they complement each other; at other times and places they compete. Paoli, Fijnhaut and Wouters have put together an excellent collection of essays that explore the nexus of the two threats.’
– Peter Reuter, University of Maryland, US
Contributors
Contributors include: Luis Astorga, Rajan Basra, Thomas Baumert, Mikel Buesa, Colin P. Clarke, Shelby Davis, Nils Duquet, Gustavo Duncan, Cyrille Fijnaut, Jose Antonio Fortou, Matt Herbert, Lars Korsell, Michael Levi, Mark Micallef, Peter Neumann, Rudie J.M. Neve, Tom Obokata, Freedom C. Onuoha, Letizia Paoli, Christophe Paulussen, Matthew Phillips, Santiago Sosa, Melvin R.J. Soudijn, Toine Spapens, Christina Steenkamp, Thomas Van Poecke, Anton Weenink, Jan Wouters
Contents
Contents:

1 Introduction to the nexus between organized crime and terrorism 1
Cyrille Fijnaut, Letizia Paoli and Jan Wouters

PART I LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUALIZATION
2 Taking stock of the literature on the nexus between
organized crime and terrorism 17
Letizia Paoli and Cyrille Fijnaut
3 Conceptualizing the nexus between organized crime and terrorism 48
Letizia Paoli and Cyrille Fijnaut

PART II TRANSFER OF RESOURCES
4 Criminal pasts, terrorist futures? Jihadist recruits in
Western Europe 86
Peter R. Neumann and Rajan Basra
5 Terrorists’ acquisition of firearms and explosives: criminal,
legal and grey sources 104
Toine Spapens and Nils Duquet
6 The organized crime–terrorism nexus and its funding 126
Michael Levi

PART III EUROPEAN CASE STUDIES
7 The nexus between organised crime and terrorism, and the
attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016 148
Cyrille Fijnaut
8 Assessing the involvement in organized crime of jihadists
from the Netherlands 221
Anton Weenink, Melvin R.J. Soudijn and Rudie J.M. Neve
9 Legal and law enforcement implications arising from the
organized crime–terrorism nexus in Northern Ireland 239
Tom Obokata
10 To what extent was Basque terrorist group ETA involved
in a nexus with organized crime? An economic analysis 258
Mikel Buesa and Thomas Baumert
11 Sweden: violent extremism and organized crime 276
Lars Korsell

PART IV NON-EUROPEAN CASE STUDIES
12 The crime–terror nexus in Syria and Iraq 302
Christina Steenkamp
13 The nexus of organized crime and terror in Afghanistan
and Pakistan 319
Matthew Phillips and Shelby Davis
14 Largely fleeting and hardly convergent: Libya’s crime–
terror nexus 342
Mark Micallef and Matt Herbert
15 The terrorism–organized crime nexus in the Boko Haram
insurgency in Nigeria 366
Freedom C. Onuoha
16 Is there any nexus between terrorism and organized crime
in Mexico? 391
Luis Astorga
17 Terrorism and organized crime in Colombia 412
Gustavo Duncan, Santiago Sosa and Jose Antonio Fortou

PART V INTERNATIONAL POLICIES
18 Responding to the crime–terror nexus: the international level 434
Christophe Paulussen and Colin P. Clarke
19 The nexus between organized crime and terrorism: policy
responses from the European Union and the Council of Europe 452
Thomas Van Poecke and Jan Wouters

Index
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