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Handbook on Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence

9781803922164 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Regine Paul, Professor in Political Science, Department of Government, University of Bergen, Norway, Emma Carmel, Professor of Governance and Public Policy, Department of Social and Policy Sciences, University of Bath and Jennifer Cobbe, Assistant Professor in Law and Technology, Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge, UK
Publication Date: June 2024 ISBN: 978 1 80392 216 4 Extent: 466 pp
This timely Handbook explores the relationship between public policy and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies across a broad range of geographical, technical, political and policy contexts. It contributes to critical AI studies, focusing on the intersection of the norms, discourses, policies, practices and regulation that shape AI in the public sector.

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Critical Acclaim
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This timely Handbook explores the relationship between public policy and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies across a broad range of geographical, technical, political and policy contexts. It contributes to critical AI studies, focusing on the intersection of the norms, discourses, policies, practices and regulation that shape AI in the public sector.

Expert authors in the field discuss the creation and use of AI technologies, and how public authorities respond to their development, by bringing together emerging scholarly debates about AI technologies with longer-standing insights on public administration, policy, regulation and governance. Contributions in the Handbook mobilize diverse perspectives to critically examine techno-solutionist approaches to public policy and AI, dissect the politico-economic interests underlying AI promotion and analyse implications for sustainable development, fairness and equality. Ultimately, this Handbook questions whether regulatory concepts such as ethical, trustworthy or accountable AI safeguard a democratic future or contribute to a problematic de-politicization of the public sector.

The Handbook on Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence is a crucial resource for students and scholars of public policy and administration, political economy, political science, sociology, law, regulation and governance, computer science and technology studies. It is also beneficial to policy practitioners, civil society actors and regulators working with AI technologies.
Critical Acclaim
‘In this very impressive Handbook, the editors have brought together an outstanding collection of contributors to provide us with analysis and critical insights on the failures and successes of our current public policy environment in rising to the challenge of artificial intelligence. Laying the foundations for both conceptual and empirical engagement, this Handbook is essential reading for anyone grappling with the political, legal, policy and administrative implications of the rapidly evolving technological transformation of contemporary society.’
– Lina Dencik, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK

‘An incisive anthology delving into AI’s complex role in public policy, addressing crucial themes of power, ethics, governance and social justice – a must-read for anyone seeking to understand and navigate technology’s societal impact.’
– Stefaan Verhulst, New York University, US

‘The Handbook on Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence provides a much-needed reflection on the key role of AI for the public sector. Exploring a diverse array of topics within the realm of what I call the “governance with, of and by AI”, the book is an important contribution to the growing knowledge base in the field.’
– Gianluca Misuraca, Executive Director AI4GOV, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain and Politecnico di Milano, Italy

‘Public policy of AI is a widely debated topic. Ranging from normative issues such as bureaucracy, trustworthiness, sustainability and decolonial critique to practical work on the geopolitics of AI and AI in healthcare, this Handbook offers helpful handles to the topic that give more academic substance to the debates. It gives those of us who hope for more regulation and democratization of AI a useful map of some of the burning conceptual questions and practical challenges we have to face. Recommended for anyone interested in the politics and policy of AI.’
– Mark Coeckelbergh, University of Vienna, Austria

‘Artificial intelligence (AI) is a key policy area that has witnessed an increasing alignment of risk regulation and governance. This timely Handbook provides a critical perspective regarding AI risk governance and politics and lays out the theoretical basis for the development and implementation of an effective, trustworthy and accountable risk governance framework for AI. It is essential reading for public policy researchers, regulators and consultants active in this area.’
– Ronit Justo-Hanani, Tel Aviv University, Israel

‘An essential Handbook for scholars studying AI governance and policy. As policymakers rush to regulate AI technologies, this vital edited collection offers needed critical vantages to expose how these technologies are transforming the foundations of democracy and governance. A must-read for anyone interested in AI, and indeed the future of governance.’
– Fenwick McKelvey, Concordia University, Canada
Contributors
Contributors include: Frans af Malmborg, Ilia Antenucci, Ville Aula, Subhajit Basu, David M. Berry, Ingvild Bode, Sally Brooks, Peter André Busch, Vanja Carlsson, Emma Carmel, Jennifer Cobbe, Cary Coglianese, Robert Donoghue, Ekkehard Ernst, Tero Erkkilä, Rory Gillis, Catriona Gray, Juan David Gutiérrez, Kate Hamblin, Roy L. Heidelberg, Sun-ha Hong, Luo Huanxin, Mareile Kaufmann, Jenny Krutzinna, Johann Laux, Matthias Leese, Federica Lucivero, David Mark, Tomás McInerney, Fran Meissner, Brent Mittelstadt, Petra Molnar, Phoebe Moore, John Morison, Daniel Mügge, Andreas Öjehag-Pettersson, Adekemi Omotubora, Michaela Padden, Regine Paul, Mirjam Pot, Barbara Prainsack, Joanna Redden, Malin Rönnblom, Guangyo Qiao-Franco, Jatinder Singh, Lyndal Sleep, Jarle Trondal, Lena Ulbricht, Grace Whitfield, James Wright, Helle Zinner Henriksen
Contents
Contents

Preface xiv
1 Introduction to the Handbook on Public Policy and Artificial
Intelligence: vantage points for critical inquiry 1
Regine Paul, Emma Carmel and Jennifer Cobbe
PART I AI AND PUBLIC POLICY: CHALLENGES TO KEY CONCEPTS
2 Researching the politics of automated systems of governing: a thematic
review 27
Andreas Öjehag-Pettersson, Vanja Carlsson and Malin Rönnblom
3 Power in AI and public policy 40
Lena Ulbricht
4 What’s old is new: AI and bureaucracy 53
Roy L. Heidelberg
5 AI and the logics of public sector organizations 66
Frans af Malmborg and Jarle Trondal
6 AI technologies and the reconfiguration of discretion in street-level
bureaucracy 80
Peter André Busch and Helle Zinner Henriksen
PART II AI AND THE POLITICS OF GOVERNANCE:
DECONSTRUCTING NORMATIVE PRECEPTS
7 Accounting for context in AI technologies 94
Jennifer Cobbe and Jatinder Singh
8 AI and bias 109
Sun-ha Hong
9 AI and ethics: policies of de-politicisation? 123
Malin Rönnblom, Vanja Carlsson and Michaela Padden
10 Algorithm and code: explainability, interpretability and policy 133
David M. Berry
11 AI and interoperability 146
Matthias Leese
12 AI and environmental sustainability 158
Federica Lucivero
13 AI and transparency 170
Ville Aula and Tero Erkkilä
14 Trust and trustworthiness in artificial intelligence 181
Rory Gillis, Johann Laux and Brent Mittelstadt
PART III AI AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF PUBLIC POLICY
AND REGULATION
15 Decolonial critique in AI policy-making and policy analysis 195
Catriona Gray
16 The platformisation of global development 207
Sally Brooks
17 Decoding and reimagining AI governance beyond colonial shadows 220
Adekemi Omotubora and Subhajit Basu
18 Procurement and artificial intelligence 235
Cary Coglianese
19 Regulatory interdependence in AI 249
Daniel Mügge
20 The politics of regulating AI technologies: towards AI competition states 261
Regine Paul
PART IV AI AND PUBLIC POLICY ON THE GROUND: PRACTICES
AND CONTESTATIONS
21 The geopolitics of AI in warfare: contested conceptions of human control 281
Ingvild Bode and Guangyu Qiao-Franco
22 AI in policing and law enforcement 295
Mareile Kaufmann
23 AI in border control and migration: techno-racism and exclusion at
digital borders 307
Petra Molnar
24 Critical appraisal of large language models in judicial decision-making 323
Juan David Gutiérrez
25 Regulating automated decision-making in the justice system: what is
the problem? 339
David Mark, Tomás McInerney and John Morison
26 AI, regulation, and the world of work: the competing approaches of the
US and China 353
Robert Donoghue, Luo Huanxin, Phoebe Moore and Ekkehard Ernst
27 Reimagining failed automation: from neoliberal punitive automated
welfare towards a politics of care 366
Lyndal Sleep and Joanna Redden
28 AI in care: a solution to the ‘care crisis’ in England? 383
Grace Whitfield, James Wright and Kate Hamblin
29 AI in child protection 397
Jenny Krutzinna
30 Governing AI technologies in healthcare: beyond the ‘ethics bubble’ 411
Mirjam Pot and Barbara Prainsack
31 AI and urban governance: from the perils of smart cities to Amazon Inc.
urbanism 423
Ilia Antenucci and Fran Meissner
Index 435
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