Intellectual Property and Agriculture

9781781953815 Edward Elgar Publishing
Edited by Brad Sherman, Professor and ARC Laureate Fellow and Susannah Chapman, Research Fellow, University of Queensland, Australia
Publication Date: 2020 ISBN: 978 1 78195 381 5 Extent: 1,896 pp
Intellectual Property and Agriculture addresses the important but largely neglected question of intellectual property’s relationship to the production, processing, marketing, and circulation of agricultural inputs, products, and practices. Together with an original introduction this comprehensive two-volume set brings together scholars from law, history, anthropology, science and technology studies, economics, and plant science who write on plants and plant genetic resources, late twentieth century international intellectual property agreements, and geographical indications of origin.

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Intellectual Property and Agriculture addresses the important but largely neglected question of intellectual property’s relationship to the production, processing, marketing, and circulation of agricultural inputs, products, and practices. Together with an original introduction this comprehensive two-volume set brings together scholars from law, history, anthropology, science and technology studies, economics, and plant science who write on plants and plant genetic resources, late twentieth century international intellectual property agreements, and geographical indications of origin.
Critical Acclaim
‘Coming in at almost two thousand pages and one hundred articles, it would be easy to see this collection as yet another reader – a snapshot of the state of the art of a field. But this is a big wolf in sheep''s clothing, labeled as a collection about intellectual property and agriculture but using the literature on the topic to brilliantly question, and expand, what we mean by both “IP” and “agriculture”, and their relationship. The whole is much more than the sum of the parts – and there are many different parts contributed by scholars in law, anthropology, economics, environmental studies, history of science, and plant science. The relationship between intellectual property and agriculture will never look the same, or more interesting than this.’
– Mario Biagioli, University of California, Los Angeles School of Law, US

‘Intellectual Property and Agriculture by Brad Sherman and Susannah Chapman provides a fascinating, and sometimes surprising, collection of articles put together by interdisciplinary scholars at the top of their game. It has opened my eyes to a rich and evolving field of study and will provide a fertile starting point for researchers for years to come. Precisely what a research collection should do.’
– Lionel Bently, Cambridge University, UK
100 articles, dating from 1890 to 2017
Contributors include: G. Bugos, K. Cooke, R. Coombe, E. Farmer, D. Gangjee, M. Janis, D. Kevles, J. Kloppenburg, C. Oguamanam, P. Palladino, K. Swanson, T. Van Dooren

Volume I



Introduction Brad Sherman and Susannah Chapman

1. Ola Tveitereid Westengen and Dan Banik (2016), ‘The State of Food Security: From Availability, Access and Rights to Food Systems Approaches’, Forum for Development Studies, 43 (1), 113–34

2. Marc Edelman (2014), ’Food Sovereignty: Forgotten Genealogies and Future Regulatory Challenges’, Journal of Peasant Studies: Global Agrarian Transformations, Volume 2: Critical Perspectives on Food Sovereignty, 41 (6), 959–78

3. David Nally (2011), ‘The Biopolitics of Food Provisioning’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 36 (1), January, 37–53

4. Staffan Müller-Wille (2003), ‘Nature as a Marketplace: The Political Economy of Linnaen Botany’, History of Political Economy, 35 (Supplement), December, 154–72

5. Lucile H. Brockway (1979), ‘Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens’, American Ethnologist, 6 (3), August, 449–65

6. W. M. Hays (1905), ‘Distributing Valuable New Varieties and Breeds’, Journal of Heredity, 1 (1), January, 58–65

7. Willet M. Hays (1906), ‘American Work in Breeding Plants and Animals’, Journal of Heredity, 2 (1), January, 155–67

8. Berris Charnley (2013), ‘Seeds Without Patents: Science and Morality in British Plant Breeding in the Long Nineteenth-Century’, Revue économique, 64 (1), January, 69–88

9. Paolo Palladino (1994), ‘Wizards and Devotees: On the Mendelian Theory of Inheritance and the Professionalization of the Agricultural Science in Great Britain and the United States, 1880–1930’, History of Science, 32 (4), December, 409–44
10. Jack Kloppenburg, Jr. and Daniel Lee Kleinman (1987), ‘The Plant Germplasm Controversy: Analyzing Empirically the Distribution of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources’, BioScience, 37 (3), March, 190–98

11. Cary Fowler and Toby Hodgkin (2004), ‘Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Assessing Global Availability’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 29, November, 143–79

12. David Nally and Stephen Taylor (2015), ‘The Politics of Self-Help: The Rockefeller Foundation, Philanthropy and the ‘Long’ Green Revolution’, Political Geography, 49, November, 51–63

13. Prabhu L. Pingali (2012), ‘Green Revolution: Impacts, Limits, and the Path Ahead’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 109 (31), July, 12302–308

14. Paul W. Heisey, John L. King and Kelly Day Rubenstein (2005), ‘Patterns of Public Sector and Private-Sector Patenting in Agricultural Biotechnology’, AgBioForum, Special Issue: Innovation and Dynamic Efficiency in Agricultural Biotechnology, 8 (2–3), 73–82

15. Garden and Forest (1890), ‘Protection for Originators of New Plants’, Scientific American, 63 (7), August 16th, 105

16. Daniel J. Kevles (2007), ‘Patents, Protections, and Privileges: The Establishment of Intellectual Property in Animals and Plants’, Isis, 98 (2), June, 323–31

17. Glenn E. Bugos and Daniel J. Kevles (1992), ‘Plants as Intellectual Property: American Practice, Law, and Policy in World Context’, Osiris: Science after ‘40, 7 (1), 74–104

18. Richard C. Lewontin (1998), ‘The Maturing of Capitalist Agriculture: Farmer as Proletarian’, Monthly Review, 50 (3), July–August, 72–84

19. Thom van Dooren (2008), ‘Inventing Seed: The Nature(s) of Intellectual Property in Plants’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 26 (4), August, 676–97

20. Brad Sherman (2008), ‘Taxonomic Property’, Cambridge Law Journal, 67 (3), November, 560–84

21. Bronwyn Parry (2012), ‘Taxonomy, Type Specimens, and the Making of Biological Property in Intellectual Property Rights Law’, International Journal of Cultural Property, Special Issue: Intangible Property at the Periphery: Expanding Enclosure in the 21st Century, 19 (3), August, 251–68

22. Knowles A. Ryerson (1933), ‘History and Significance of the Foreign Plant Introduction Work of the United States Department of Agriculture’, Agricultural History, 7 (3), July, 110–28

23. Lyman Carrier (1937), ‘The United States Agricultural Society, 1852–1860: Its Relation to the Origin of the United States Department of Agriculture and the Land Grant Colleges’, Agricultural History, 11 (4), October, 278–88

24. A. F. Kelly and J. D. C. Bowring (1990), ‘The Development of Seed Certification in England and Wales’, Plant Varieties and Seeds, 3 (3), 139–50

25. Kathy J. Cooke (2002), ‘Expertise, Book Farming, and Government Agriculture: The Origins of Agricultural Seed Certification in the United States’, Agricultural History, 76 (3), Summer, 524–45

26. Guntra A. Aistara (2014), ‘Actually Existing Tomatoes: Politics of Memory, Variety and Empire in Latvian Struggles over Seeds’, Focaal: Seeds – Grown, Governed, and Contested, 69, June, 12–27

27. Tamara Wattnem (2016), ‘Seed Laws, Certification and Standardization: Outlawing Informal Seed Systems in the Global South’, Journal of Peasant Studies, 43 (4), 850–67

28. D. D. Ellis, K. A. Garland-Campbell, J. A. Grotenhuis, M. M. Jenderek and J. F. Pedersen (2010), ‘Crop Registration: The Pathway to Public Access of Plant Genetic Materials to Build Crops for the Future’, Crop Science, 50 (4), July, 1151–60

29. Kara W. Swanson (2011), ‘Food and Drug Law as Intellectual Property Law: Historical Reflections’, Wisconsin Law Review, 2011 (2), 331–97

30. Lodo Lodi (1977), ‘Usage, Practices and Contracts for the Distribution of New Plant Varieties’, UPOV Newsletter, 10, 5–12

31. O. F. Cook (1925), ‘Cotton Improvement Laws in California’, Journal of Heredity, 16 (9), September, 335–38

32. Chidi Oguamanam (2013), ‘Open Innovation in Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture’, Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property, 13 (1), 11–50

33. Jack Kloppenburg (2010), ‘Impeding Dispossession, Enabling Repossession: Biological Open Source and the Recovery of Seed Sovereignty’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 10 (3), July, 367–88

34. Jack Kloppenburg (2014), ‘Re-purposing the Master’s Tools: The Open Source Seed Initiative and the Struggle for Seed Sovereignty’, Journal of Peasant Studies: Global Agrarian Transformations, Volume 2: Critical Perspectives on Food Sovereignty, 41 (6), 1225–46

35. Katharine A. Legun (2015), ‘Club Apples: A Biology of Markets Built on the Social Life of Variety’, Economy and Society, 44 (2), 293–315

36. Stanley P. Kowalski and R. David Kryder (2002), ‘Golden Rice: A Case Study in Intellectual Property Management and International Capacity Building’, Risk: Health, Safety and Environment, 13 (1), Spring, 47–67

37. Deborah Fitzgerald (1993), ‘Farmers Deskilled: Hybrid Corn and Farmers’ Work’, Technology and Culture, 34 (2), April, 324–43

38. Stephen Hubicki and Brad Sherman (2005), ‘The Killing Fields: Intellectual Property and Genetic Use Restriction Technologies’, UNSW Law Journal, 28 (3), November, 740–57

39. Debra L. Blair (1999), ‘Intellectual Property Protection and its Impact on the U.S. Seed Industry’, Drake Journal of Agricultural Law, 4 (1), Spring, 297–330

40. Suresh Pal, Robert Tripp and Niels P. Louwaars (2007), ‘Intellectual Property Rights in Plant Breeding and Biotechnology: Assessing Impact on the Indian Seed Industry’, Economic and Political Weekly, 42 (3), January 20th, 231–40

41. Glenn E. Bugos (1992), ‘Intellectual Property Protection in the American Chicken-Breeding Industry’, Business History Review: High-Technology Industries, 66 (1), Spring, 127–68

42. James L. Luby and David S. Bedford (2015), ‘Cultivars as Consumer Brands: Trends in Protecting and Commercializing Apple Cultivars via Intellectual Property Rights’, Crop Science, 55 (6), November–December, 2504–10

43. Paul J. Heald and Susannah Chapman (2012), ‘Veggie Tales: Pernicious Myths about Patents, Innovation, and Crop Diversity in the Twentieth Century’, University of Illinois Law Review, 2012 (4), 1051–102

44. Vincent Moses (1982), ‘Machines in the Garden: A Citrus Monopoly in Riverside 1900–1936’, California History, 61 (1), April, 26–35

45. Hannah Landecker (2011), ‘Food as Exposure: Nutritional Epigenetics and the New Metabolism’, BioSocieties, 6 (2), June, 167–94

Volume II


Introduction An introduction to both volumes by the editors appears in Volume I

1. Daniel J. Kevles (2013), ‘A Primer of A, B, Seeds: Advertising, Branding, and Intellectual Property in an Emerging Industry’, University of California, Davis, Law Review, 47 (2), December, 657–78

2. Milton E. Abramson (1956), ‘Cows, Brands and Trademarks’, Journal of the Patent Office Society, 38 (12), December, 861–65

3. Jay Sanderson (2016), ‘Health Conscious and Confused: Why ‘Healthy’ Trade Marks Matter to Consumers’, UNSW Law Journal, 39 (2), July, 658–83

4. Dev S. Gangjee (2017), ‘Proving Provenance? Geographical Indications Certification and its Ambiguities’, World Development, 98, October, 12–24

5. Rosemary J. Coombe and Nicole Aylwin (2011), ‘Bordering Diversity and Desire: Using Intellectual Property to Mark Place-Based Products’, Environment and Planning A, 43 (9), September, 2027–42

6. Sarah Bowen (2010), ‘Developing from Within? The Potential for Geographical Indications in the Global South’, Journal of World Intellectual Property, Special Issue: The Law and Economics of Geographical Indications, 13 (2), March, 231–52

7. Erica A. Farmer (2014), ‘Codifying Consensus and Constructing Boundaries: Setting the Limits of Appellation d’origine contrôlee Protection in Bourdeaux, France’, Political and Legal Anthropology Review, 37 (1), May, 126–44

8. Sarah Besky (2014), ‘The Labor of Terroir and the Terroir of Labor: Geographical Indication and Darjeeling Tea Plantations’, Agriculture and Human Values, 31 (1), March, 83–96

9. Robert C. Cook (1931), ‘The First Plant Patent’, Journal of Heredity, 22 (10), October, 313–19

10. Alain Pottage and Brad Sherman (2007), ‘Organisms and Manufactures: On the History of Plant Inventions’, Melbourne University Law Review, 31 (2), 539–68

11. Cary Fowler (2000), ‘The Plant Patent Act of 1930: A Sociological History of its Creation’, Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society, 82 (9), 621–44

12. Noel J. Byrne (1983), ‘The Agritechnical Criteria in Plant Breeders’ Rights Law’, Industrial Property, 22 (10), October, 293–303

13. Jay Sanderson (2006), ‘Essential Derivation, Law and the Limits of Science’, Law in Context: Patent Law and Biological Inventions, 24 (1), December, 34–53

14. Michael S. Camlin (2003), ‘Plant Cultivar Identification and Registration – The Role for Molecular Techniques’, Acta Horticulturae, XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Biotechnology in Horticultural Crop Improvement: Achievements, Opportunities and Limitations, 625, September, 37–47

15. Jay Sanderson (2011), ‘Towards a (Limited) Cascading Right: What is the Appropriate Scope of Protection for Plant Breeding?’, UNSW Law Journal, 34 (3), November, 1104–21

16. Charles Lawson (2015), ‘The Breeder’s Exemption under UPOV 1991, the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Nagoya Protocol’, Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice, 10 (7), July, 526–35

17. Ross Kingwell and Alistair Watson (1998), ‘End-Point Royalties for Plant Breeding in Australia’, Agenda, 5 (3), 323–34

18. Noah Zerbe (2005), ‘Biodiversity, Ownership, and Indigenous Knowledge: Exploring Legal Frameworks for Community, Farmers, and Intellectual Property Rights in Africa’, Ecological Economics, 53 (4), June, 493–506

19. Chidi Oguamanam (2015), ‘Breeding Apples for Oranges: Africa’s Misplaced Priority over Plant Breeders’ Rights’, Journal of World Intellectual Property, 18 (5), September, 165–95

20. Pratibha Brahmi and Vijaya Chaudhary (2011), ‘Protection of Plant Varieties: Systems across Countries’, Plant Genetic Resources, 9 (3), August, 392–403
21. Emma Trustum-Behan and Charles Lawson (2016), ‘The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act 2001 (In) and New Plant Varieties, Extant Varieties and Farmers’ Varieties: A New Form of Property?’, Australian Intellectual Property Journal, 27 (2), 73–87

22. Guntra A. Aistara (2012), ‘Privately Public Seeds: Competing Visions of Property, Personhood, and Democracy in Costa Rica’s Entry into CAFTA and the Union for Plant Variety Protection (UPOV)’, Journal of Political Ecology, 19 (1), 127–44

23. Rajeswari Kanniah (2005), ‘Plant Variety Protection in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand’, Journal of World Intellectual Property, 8 (3), May, 283–310

24. Mark D. Janis and Jay P. Kesan (2002), ‘U.S. Plant Variety Protection: Sound and Fury...?’, Houston Law Review: Symposium, 39 (3), 727–78

25. Edwin J. Prindle (1920), ‘The Farmer and the Patent System’, Journal of the Patent Office Society, 3, 113–22

26. Daniel J. Kevles (2015), ‘Inventions, Yes; Nature, No: The Products-of-Nature Doctrine from the American Colonies to the U.S. Courts’, Perspectives on Science, Special Issue on Gene Patenting, 23 (1), Spring, 13–34

27. Paul van der Kooij (2010), ‘Towards a Breeder’s Exemption in Patent Law?’, European Intellectual Property Review, 32 (11), 545–52

28. Richard H. Stern (2014), ‘Bowman v Monsanto: Exhaustion versus Making’, European Intellectual Property Review, 36 (4), January, 255–61

29. Drew L. Kershen (2004), ‘Of Straying Crops and Patent Rights’, Washburn Law Journal, 43 (3), Spring, 575–610

30. Gillian N. Rattray (2002), ‘The Enola Bean Patent Controversy: Biopiracy, Novelty, and Fish-and-Chips’, Duke Law and Technology Review, 1 (1), 1–7

31. Michael A. Kock and Floris ten Have (2016), ‘The ‘International Licensing Platform – Vegetables’: A Prototype of a Patent Clearing House in the Life Science Industry’, Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice, 11 (7), July, 496–515

32. William H. Phillips (1994), ‘Making a Business of It: The Evolution of Southern Cotton Gin Patenting, 1831–1890’, Agricultural History: Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1793–1993: A Symposium, 68 (2), Spring, 80–91

33. William Lesser (1994), ‘Royalty Collection for Patented Livestock’, European Intellectual Property Review, 16 (10), 441–44

34. Ashley Laine Cooper (2011), ‘Peanuts, Politics and the Plumpy’nut Patent’, European Intellectual Property Review, 33 (8), 481–89

35. Jacob Strobel (2014), ‘Agriculture Precision Farming: Who Owns the Property of Information? Is it the Farmer, the Company who Helps Consults the Farmer on how to Use the Information Best, Or the Mechanical Company who Built the Technology Itself?’, Drake Journal of Agricultural Law, 19 (2), Summer, 239–56

36. Meredith G. Lawrence (2011), ‘Edible Plagiarism: Reconsidering Recipe Copyright in the Digital Age’, Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law, 14 (1), Fall, 187–223

37. Mark D. Janis (2004), ‘Supplemental Forms of Intellectual Property Protection for Plants’, Bio-Science Law Review, Special Issue: Protection of Intellectual Property and Access to Plant Genetic Resources, 7 (1), 32–44

38. Peter K. Trzyna (1987), ‘Are Plants Protectable Under the Design Patent Act?’, Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society, 69 (9), 487–502

39. Gerard Downes (2004), ‘TRIPs and Food Security: Implications of the WTO’s TRIPs Agreement for Food Security in the Developing World’, British Food Journal, 106 (5), 366–79

40. Mohamed Ali Mekouar (2002), ‘Treaty Agreed on Agrobiodiversity: The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture’, Environmental Policy and Law, 32 (1), December, 20–25

41. Cary Fowler (2004), ‘Regime Change: Plant Genetic Resources in International Law’, Outlook on Agriculture, 33 (1), March, 7–14

42. Michael Halewood, Elsa Andrieux, Léontine Crisson, Jean Rwihaniza Gapusi, John Wasswa Mulumba, Edmond Kouablan Koffi, Tashi Yangzome Dorji, Madan Raj Bhatta and Didier Balma (2013), ‘Implementing “Mutually Supportive” Access and Benefit Sharing Mechanisms under the Plant Treaty, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Nagoya Protocol’, Law, Environment and Development Journal, 9 (1), i–ii, 70–96

43. Cary Fowler, Geoffrey Hawtin, Rodomiro Ortiz, Masa Iwanaga and Jan Engles (2004), ‘The Question of Derivatives: Promoting Use and Ensuring Availability of Non-Proprietary Plant Genetic Resources’, Issues in Genetic Resources, 12, 7–26

44. Charles Lawson (2009), ‘Intellectual Property and the Material Transfer Agreement under the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture’, European Intellectual Property Review, 31 (5), 244–54

45. Bart Van Vooren (2016), ‘Impact on the Food Industry of New EU Rules Implementing the Nagoya Protocol’, European Food and Feed Law Review, 11 (3), 220–25

46. Daniel F. Robinson and Miranda Forsyth (2016), ‘People, Plants, Place, and Rules: The Nagoya Protocol in Pacific Island Countries’, Geographical Research, Special Issue: Legal Geography, 54 (3), August, 324–35

47. Craig Borowiak (2004), ‘Farmers’ Rights: Intellectual Property Regimes and the Struggle over Seeds’, Politics and Society, 32 (4), December, 511–43

48. Vandana Shiva (1993), ‘Farmers’ Rights, Biodiversity and International Treaties’, Economic and Political Weekly, 28 (14), April 3rd, 555–60

49. Stephen B. Brush (1999), ‘Bioprospecting the Public Domain’, Cultural Anthropology, 14 (4), November, 535–55

50. Paul J. Heald (2003), ‘The Rhetoric of Biopiracy’, Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law, 11 (2), 519–46

51. Karine Peschard (2017), ‘Seed Wars and Farmers’ Rights: Comparative Perspectives from Brazil and India’, Journal of Peasant Studies, 44 (1), 144–68

52. L. Slade Lee (2012), ‘Horticultural Development of Bush Food Plants and Rights of Indigenous People as Traditional Custodians – the Australian Bush Tomato (Solanum centrale) Example: A Review’, Rangeland Journal, 34 (4), 359–73

53. Henrietta Fourmile-Marrie (1999), ‘Bushtucker: Some Food for Thought’, Artlink, 19 (4), December, 34–37

54. Noah Zerbe (2007), ‘Contesting Privatization: NGOs and Farmers’ Rights in the African Model Law’, Global Environmental Politics, 7 (1), February, 97–116

55. Rene Salazar, Niels P. Louwaars and Bert Visser (2007), ‘Protecting Farmers’ New Varieties: New Approaches to Rights on Collective Innovations in Plant Genetic Resources’, World Development: Property Rights, Collective Action, and Local Conservation of Genetic Resources, 35 (9), September, 1515–28


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