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The Middle East in Transition

The Centrality of Citizenship Edited by Nils A. Butenschøn, Professor, Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo, Norway and Roel Meijer, Associate Professor, Radboud University, Faculty of Religion, Theology and Religious Studies, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
The violent transitions that have dominated developments since the Arab Uprisings demonstrate deep-seated divisions in the conceptions of state authority and citizen rights and responsibilities. Analysing the Middle East through the lens of the ‘citizenship approach’, this book argues that the current diversity of crisis in the region can be ascribed primarily to the crisis in the relations between state and citizen. The volume includes theoretical discussions and case studies, and covers both Arab and non-Arab countries.
Extent: 368 pp
Hardback Price: $165.00 Web: $148.50
Publication Date: 2018
ISBN: 978 1 78811 112 6
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  • Law - Academic
  • Constitutional and Administrative Law
  • Human Rights
  • Politics and Public Policy
  • Human Rights
  • International Politics
  • Migration
The Middle East is currently undergoing its most dramatic transition since World War I. The political order, both within individual countries and on the regional level, has been in turmoil ever since the Arab Uprisings in 2011. Analysts are struggling to identify conceptual frameworks that capture the complex nature of the developments that we observe.

The Middle East in Transition demonstrates how citizenship understood as a social contract between citizens and the state is a key factor in current political crises in the region. The book analyses three distinct dimensions of citizenship in the Middle East: the development of citizenship in specific countries, including Morocco, Israel Turkey and Iraq; Islam and the writings of twentieth-century Islamic thinkers; and the international dimension of citizenship, particularly regarding EU policies towards the region and the rights of Syrian refugees.

This timely book provides a comprehensive insight into the current implications of the changing relationships between the citizen and the state in the Middle East. Discussing the topic with clarity and detail, it will be essential reading not only for researchers but also for policy makers and government officials.
‘This work has come at an important time in the wake of the so-called Arab spring when the fluctuating patterns of state-citizen relations were rethought with varying success. Looking at citizenship in the region from multi-disciplinary and content related perspectives, this collection of essays discusses the variety of ways in which citizenship operates – and is thought about – in the contemporary Middle East and beyond. In looking at the contested dimensions of citizenship, this book is an important and timely work for anyone interested in the processes by which what it means to be a citizen is made and remade.’
– Rachel M. Scott, Virginia Tech, US

‘Citizenship is the vital missing link between rulers and ruled in the Middle East. Precisely because it has been inadequately developed in the region’s constitutions, laws and practices, it has been afforded insufficient scholarly attention. This volume brilliantly addresses that deficiency by contextualizing Middle Eastern citizenship theoretically, historically, in contemporary socio-political and religious settings across the region, and as regards the Middle East’s relationships with external actors. One of its general findings is that never having been adequately established, citizenship in the Middle East has come under renewed threat in the wake of the Arab uprisings of 2011. This impressive work merits wide readership.’
– Robert Springborg, the Italian Institute of International Affairs, Italy

‘This timely book makes a strong case for how our analyses of such critical issues as political Islam, the impact of neoliberalism, and authoritarian resilience may be significantly enhanced through a careful focus on the changing definitions, roles and practices of citizenship in the Middle East. Whether wrested as the result of struggles from below or decreed from above, the forms of inclusion and exclusion explored in this welcome addition to the literature will continue to define critical aspects of the region's socio-economic and political trajectories for the foreseeable future.’
– Laurie A. Brand, University of Southern California, US

‘This collection of chapters on changes in the post-Arab Spring is not just another book on the transformative forces unleashed since 2011. Butenschøn and Meijer need to be commended for bringing together convincing arguments about the centrality of citizenship in understanding these changes, and the concerns and the struggles of the people in the Middle East. This is a powerful, analytically groundbreaking, and vast collection of works in a constantly evolving field of study.’
– James N. Sater, American University of Sharjah, UAE





Contributors: S. Ahmadou, Z. Alsabeehg, Z. Babar, S.I. Bergh, N. Bernard-Maugiron, N.A. Butenschøn, L.C. Frost, B. Ince, M. Kanie, R. Meijer, V.M. Moghadam, Z. Pall, S. Saeidi, R.H. Santini, P. Seeberg, M.M. Shteiwi
Contents:

Part I Local Contested citizenship
1. Israeli Ethnocracy and the Israel-Palestine Citizenship Complex
Nils A. Butenschøn

2. Remapping Citizenship in Turkey: Law, Identity, and Civic Virtue, 1980-2014
Basak Ince

3. Bringing about the Non-Citizen in Iraq: A Genealogical Approach
Mariwan Kanie

4. Claiming Spaces for Acts of Citizenship: Recent Experiences of Activists in Morocco
Sylvia I. Bergh and Salima Ahmadou

5. Enduring “Contested” Citizenship in the Gulf Cooperation Council
Zahra Babar

6. Bahrain’s Citizenship Policy of Inclusion and Exclusion
Zeineb Alsabeehg

7. Citizenship in the 2014 Egyptian Constitution
Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron

Part II Islam and the issue of citizenship
8. The Political, Politics, and Political Citizenship in Modern Islam
Roel Meijer

9. Can the Umma Replace the Nation? Salafism and Deterritorialized Citizenship in Lebanon and Kuwait
Zoltan Pall

10. Iran’s Hizbollah and Citizenship Politics: The Surprises of Religious Legislation in a Hybrid Regime
Shirin Saeidi

PART III International dimensions of citizenship rights
11. The EU and Its Southern Neighbors: A Fuzzy Model of Citizenship Promotion?
Ruth Hanau Santini

12. Citizenship and Migration Diplomacy: Turkey and the EU
Peter Seeberg

13. Syrian Refugees and Citizenship
Lillian C. Frost and Musa M. Shteiw

14. After the Arab Spring: Towards Women’s Economic Citizenship
Valentine M. Moghadam

Index